inside gen_server call

0

动机

前段时间的两个工作.
一个是entity集群库, 可以通过entity_id调用任意节点上的entity.
一个是名字服务, 可以为一系列pid注册名字, 并可以以这些名字调用对应的pid.
都会遇到同一些问题: 当我们使用GenServer.call/2时, 发生了什么, 会有什么异常情况发生? 哪些异常应该捕获? 以什么样的方式处理这些异常/错误?
当call的pid所在的node崩溃时, 会有什么异常? 在调用开始前/中崩溃, 有什么不同.
当call的pid所在的node网络突然中断呢? 会有什么表现?
当call的pid崩溃时呢?
是否应该捕获timeout?
这些问题在文档中并没有答案. 所以, 探索一下.

深挖实现

源码版本

erlang: OTP-21.0.9

inside gen_server.erl call

gen_server.erl:203

%% -----------------------------------------------------------------
%% Make a call to a generic server.
%% If the server is located at another node, that node will
%% be monitored.
%% If the client is trapping exits and is linked server termination
%% is handled here (? Shall we do that here (or rely on timeouts) ?).
%% ----------------------------------------------------------------- 
call(Name, Request) ->
    case catch gen:call(Name, '$gen_call', Request) of
    {ok,Res} ->
        Res;
    {'EXIT',Reason} ->
        exit({Reason, {?MODULE, call, [Name, Request]}})
    end.

call(Name, Request, Timeout) ->
    case catch gen:call(Name, '$gen_call', Request, Timeout) of
    {ok,Res} ->
        Res;
    {'EXIT',Reason} ->
        exit({Reason, {?MODULE, call, [Name, Request, Timeout]}})
    end.

gen.erl:160

do_call(Process, Label, Request, Timeout) when is_atom(Process) =:= false ->
    Mref = erlang:monitor(process, Process),

    %% OTP-21:
    %% Auto-connect is asynchronous. But we still use 'noconnect' to make sure
    %% we send on the monitored connection, and not trigger a new auto-connect.
    %%
    erlang:send(Process, {Label, {self(), Mref}, Request}, [noconnect]),

    receive
        {Mref, Reply} ->
            erlang:demonitor(Mref, [flush]),
            {ok, Reply};
        {'DOWN', Mref, _, _, noconnection} ->
            Node = get_node(Process),
            exit({nodedown, Node});
        {'DOWN', Mref, _, _, Reason} ->
            exit(Reason)
    after Timeout ->
            erlang:demonitor(Mref, [flush]),
            exit(timeout)
    end.

可以看到, call一个process的过程:

  1. monitor process
  2. send_msg to process and receive for reply.

可能的情况有

  1. 正常返回, demonitor
  2. noconnection
  3. pid down for any reason
  4. timeout

那么, 前面的各种异常, 会对应到哪些情况呢? 有没有意外?
先看看monitor一个process时到底做了什么.

inside monitor

erlang.erl:1291

-type registered_name() :: atom().
-type registered_process_identifier() :: registered_name() | {registered_name(), node()}.
-type monitor_process_identifier() :: pid() | registered_process_identifier().
-type monitor_port_identifier() :: port() | registered_name().
%% monitor/2
-spec monitor
      (process, monitor_process_identifier()) -> MonitorRef
      when MonitorRef :: reference();
      (port, monitor_port_identifier()) -> MonitorRef
      when MonitorRef :: reference();
        (time_offset, clock_service) -> MonitorRef
      when MonitorRef :: reference().

monitor(_Type, _Item) ->
    erlang:nif_error(undefined).

在monitor process时, 可以是一个pid, name, name node tuple. 但这里没有具体实现, 找一下nif.
调试发现, 入口在bif.c:monitor_2

Thread 5 "1_scheduler" hit Breakpoint 9, erts_monitor_create (type=type@entry=0, ref=ref@entry=140046391205050, orgn=3092376454563, trgt=trgt@entry=2645699855571, name=name@entry=18446744073709551611)
    at beam/erl_monitor_link.c:759
759    {
(gdb) bt
#0  erts_monitor_create (type=type@entry=0, ref=ref@entry=140046391205050, orgn=3092376454563, trgt=trgt@entry=2645699855571, name=name@entry=18446744073709551611) at beam/erl_monitor_link.c:759
#1  0x00000000004d5029 in monitor_2 (A__p=0x7f5f36e803e0, BIF__ARGS=0x7f5f379c0100, A__I=<optimized out>) at beam/bif.c:514
#2  0x000000000044042e in process_main () at x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/opt/smp/beam_cold.h:59
#3  0x000000000043a0c6 in sched_thread_func (vesdp=0x7f5f35e44dc0) at beam/erl_process.c:8332
#4  0x00000000006467c9 in thr_wrapper (vtwd=0x7ffdb57b4180) at pthread/ethread.c:118
#5  0x00007f5f78d5c6ba in start_thread (arg=0x7f5f34e7f700) at pthread_create.c:333
#6  0x00007f5f7888a41d in clone () at ../sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/x86_64/clone.S:109

先看本地pid的注册, 当target为atom时, 只是取一下pid, goto local_proccess, 逻辑上只有name是否有值的区别.

        // 若是本地pid, 名字为空
        if (is_internal_pid(target)) {
            name = NIL;
            id = target;

        local_process:
            // make ref in call process
            ref = erts_make_ref(BIF_P);
            // 判断monitor的进程非调用进程
            if (id != BIF_P->common.id) {
                // create monitor data
                mdp = erts_monitor_create(ERTS_MON_TYPE_PROC,
                                          ref, BIF_P->common.id,
                                          id, name);
                // insert to process monitor tree
                erts_monitor_tree_insert(&ERTS_P_MONITORS(BIF_P),
                                         &mdp->origin);
                // 从这里开始, 远程pid的monitor有逻辑上的不同
                // 给调用进程mdp->target发sig, monitor target id.
                if (!erts_proc_sig_send_monitor(&mdp->target, id))
                    erts_proc_sig_send_monitor_down(&mdp->target,
                                                    am_noproc);
            }
            BIF_RET(ref);
        }

再看远程pid的注册

        if (is_external_pid(target)) {
            ErtsDSigData dsd;
            int code;

            dep = external_pid_dist_entry(target);
            if (dep == erts_this_dist_entry)
                goto noproc;

            id = target;
            name = NIL;
            byname = 0;

        remote_process:

            ref = erts_make_ref(BIF_P);
            mdp = erts_monitor_create(ERTS_MON_TYPE_DIST_PROC, ref,
                                      BIF_P->common.id, id, name);
            erts_monitor_tree_insert(&ERTS_P_MONITORS(BIF_P), &mdp->origin);
            // 这里开始和local pid有所不同
            code = erts_dsig_prepare(&dsd, dep,
                                     BIF_P, ERTS_PROC_LOCK_MAIN,
                                     ERTS_DSP_RLOCK, 0, 1);
            switch (code) {
            // 如果调用时, 链接就没建立, 或远端节点NOT_ALIVE, 马上会抛出 noconnection 异常.
            case ERTS_DSIG_PREP_NOT_ALIVE:
            case ERTS_DSIG_PREP_NOT_CONNECTED:
                erts_monitor_set_dead_dist(&mdp->target, dep->sysname);
                erts_proc_sig_send_monitor_down(&mdp->target, am_noconnection);
                code = ERTS_DSIG_SEND_OK;
                break;
            // 链接中或已建链
            case ERTS_DSIG_PREP_PENDING:
            case ERTS_DSIG_PREP_CONNECTED: {
#ifdef DEBUG
                int inserted =
#endif
                // monitor a process (named or unnamed) on another node
                erts_monitor_dist_insert(&mdp->target, dep->mld);
                ASSERT(inserted);
                erts_de_runlock(dep);

                code = erts_dsig_send_monitor(&dsd, BIF_P->common.id, target, ref);
                break;
            }

            default:
                ERTS_ASSERT(! "Invalid dsig prepare result");
                code = ERTS_DSIG_SEND_OK;
                break;
            }

            if (byname)
                erts_deref_dist_entry(dep);

            if (code == ERTS_DSIG_SEND_YIELD)
                ERTS_BIF_YIELD_RETURN(BIF_P, ref);
            BIF_RET(ref);
        }

若调用中pid退出, 本地pid, 会直接调用erl_proc_sig_queue.c:erts_proc_sig_send_monitor_down.
远端pid, 会收到DOP_MONITOR_P_EXIT消息. dist.c:1665

    case DOP_MONITOR_P_EXIT: {
    /* We are monitoring a process on the remote node which dies, we get
       {DOP_MONITOR_P_EXIT, Remote pid or name, Local pid, ref, reason} */
       
    if (tuple_arity != 5) {
        goto invalid_message;
    }

    watched = tuple[2];  /* remote proc or name which died */
    watcher = tuple[3];
    ref     = tuple[4];
    reason  = tuple[5];

    if (is_not_ref(ref))
        goto invalid_message;

        if (is_not_external_pid(watched) && is_not_atom(watched))
            goto invalid_message;

        if (is_not_internal_pid(watcher)) {
            if (!is_external_pid(watcher))
                goto invalid_message;
            if (erts_this_dist_entry == external_pid_dist_entry(watcher))
                break;
            goto invalid_message;
        }

        erts_proc_sig_send_dist_monitor_down(dep, ref, watched,
                                             watcher, reason);
    break;
    }

最终和本地pid down一样, 都会通过send_gen_exit_signal, 通知monitor的进程.

node down

dist.c:erts_do_net_exits
dist.c:schedule_con_monitor_link_cleanup
dist.c:con_monitor_link_cleanup
过程, 检测到网络断开后, 对本node的monitor的pid, 发送reason信息. todo 调试拿一下callstack.

验证

先将EchoService的代码贴出.

defmodule Service.Echo do
  @moduledoc """
  """
  use GenServer

  require Logger
  require Record

  Record.defrecordp :state, [
  ]

  def start_link(params) do
    GenServer.start_link(__MODULE__, params, name: __MODULE__)
  end

  def init(_) do
    {:ok, state()}
  end

  def handle_info(_what, state) do
    {:noreply, state}
  end

  def handle_cast(_what, state) do
    {:noreply, state}
  end

  def handle_call({:sleep, timeout}=what, _from, state) do
    :timer.sleep(timeout)
    {:reply, what, state}
  end

  def handle_call({:raise_after, timeout, raise_msg}=what, _from, state) do
    :timer.sleep(timeout)
    raise raise_msg
    {:reply, what, state}
  end

  def handle_call(what, _from, state) do
    {:reply, what, state}
  end

end

调用开始前, Node崩溃/未链接, exit no connection

iex(xxxxxx@xxxxxx.)47> GenServer.call({Service.Echo, :"xxxxx@xxxxxx."}, :hello)
** (exit) exited in: GenServer.call({Service.Echo, :"xxxxx@xxxxxx."}, :hello, 5000)
    ** (EXIT) no connection to xxxxx@xxxxxx.
    (elixir) lib/gen_server.ex:924: GenServer.call/3

调用开始后, shutdown Node, exit shutdown

iex(xxxxx@xxxxx.)47> xxxxx.call(:echo_service, {:sleep, 50000}, 100000)
** (exit) exited in: GenServer.call(#PID<45205.2967.0>, {:sleep, 50000}, 100000)
    ** (EXIT) shutdown
    (elixir) lib/gen_server.ex:924: GenServer.call/3
    (xxxxxxxxx) lib/xxxxxxx/xxxxxxxxx.ex:35: xxxxxxx/4

调用开始后, kill -9 {node_pid}, exit by no connection

iex(xxxxxx@xxxxxx.)54> GenServer.call({Service.Echo, :"xxxxxx@xxxxxx."}, {:sleep, 1000000}, 50000000)  
** (exit) exited in: GenServer.call({Service.Echo, :"xxxxxx@xxxxxx."}, {:sleep, 1000000}, 50000000)
    ** (EXIT) no connection to xxxxxx@xxxxxx.
    (elixir) lib/gen_server.ex:924: GenServer.call/3

调用开始后, pid崩溃, exit by reason

iex(xxxxx@xxxxx.)48> GenServer.call({Service.Echo, :"xxxxxxx@xxxxxxx."}, {:raise_after, 3000, "hello"})
** (exit) exited in: GenServer.call({Service.Echo, :"xxxxxxx@xxxxxx."}, {:raise_after, 3000, "hello"}, 5000)
    ** (EXIT) an exception was raised:
        ** (RuntimeError) hello
            lib/echo_service.ex:99: Service.Echo.handle_call/3
            (stdlib) gen_server.erl:661: :gen_server.try_handle_call/4
            (stdlib) gen_server.erl:690: :gen_server.handle_msg/6
            (stdlib) proc_lib.erl:249: :proc_lib.init_p_do_apply/3
    (elixir) lib/gen_server.ex:924: GenServer.call/3

调用开始后, 网络中断

用docker network disconnect multi-host-network xxxxx_echo_service模拟拔网线的效果
大约30-60S后, exit by no connection

iex(xxxxx@xxxxx.)48> GenServer.call({Service.Echo, :"xxxxxx@xxxxxxx."}, {:sleep, 1000000}, 50000000)  
** (exit) exited in: GenServer.call({Service.Echo, :"xxxxxx@xxxxxxx."}, {:sleep, 1000000}, 50000000)
    ** (EXIT) no connection to xxxxxx@xxxxxxx.
    (elixir) lib/gen_server.ex:924: GenServer.call/3

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