LINUX笔记第一周 4.13-4.19

run

基础

1、按系列罗列Linux的发行版,并描述不同发行版之间的联系与区别。

2、安装Centos7.6操作系统,创建一个自己名字的用户名,并可以正常登录,将主要步骤截图。

3、配置环境变量,实现执行history的时候可以看到执行命令的时间。

4、总结Linux哲学思想。

5、总结Linux常用命令使用格式,并用实例说明。例如echo、screen、date、ifconfig、export等命令

1 按系列罗列Linux的发行版,并描述不同发行版之间的联系与区别。

1) Linux的发行版(distribution)

Debian、RedHat、SUSE

2) 联系

基于LINUX发展而来,基于公开的标准的POSIX标准重新编写而成,LINUXJ是自由软件,免费、公开源代码的

LINUX的思想源于UNIX

基于GPL协议

LINUX只是个内核,发行版本都是在此实现

3) 区别

按发行版本 一类是商业公司公司,如RedHat, 一类是以debian为代表,社区组织维护

Debian是包含Ubuntu的,遵循GNU规范,包管理工具 apt-get / dpkg

RedHat 是红帽公司研发, 包括Fedora、 Rhel、 Centos

2 安装Centos7.6操作系统,创建一个自己名字的用户名,并可以正常登录,将主要步骤截图。

安装忽略

ubuntu下

groupadd -g 1002 developer
useradd -u 1002 -g 1002 -d /home/zzw1 -s /bin/bash -m zzw1
passwd zzw1
id zzw1
uid=1002(zzw1) gid=1002(developer) groups=1002(developer)

3 配置环境变量,实现执行history的时候可以看到执行命令的时间。

vim ~/.bashrc
HISTTIMEFORMAT="%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S "
. ~/.bashrc

4 总结Linux哲学思想

1) 一切皆文件

2)提供很多小型的单一用途的程序

3) 连接程序,共同完成复杂的功能

4)配置数据存储在文本中

5、总结Linux常用命令使用格式,并用实例说明。例如echo、screen、date、ifconfig、export等命令

分为内部命令和外部命令,使用type查看

内置命令 xxx is a shell builtin,如echo, export

外部命令 xxx is $PATH/xxx, 如 screen、date、ifconfig

内置命令查看

help echo 
echo: echo [-neE] [arg ...]
    Write arguments to the standard output.

    Display the ARGs, separated by a single space character and followed by a
    newline, on the standard output.

    Options:
      -n    do not append a newline
      -e    enable interpretation of the following backslash escapes
      -E    explicitly suppress interpretation of backslash escapes

外部命令 xxx --help

screen --help
Use: screen [-opts] [cmd [args]]
 or: screen -r [host.tty]

Options:
-4            Resolve hostnames only to IPv4 addresses.
-6            Resolve hostnames only to IPv6 addresses.
-a            Force all capabilities into each window's termcap.
-A -[r|R]     Adapt all windows to the new display width & height.
-c file       Read configuration file instead of '.screenrc'.
-d (-r)       Detach the elsewhere running screen (and reattach here).
-dmS name     Start as daemon: Screen session in detached mode.
-D (-r)       Detach and logout remote (and reattach here).
-D -RR        Do whatever is needed to get a screen session.
-e xy         Change command characters.
-f            Flow control on, -fn = off, -fa = auto.
-h lines      Set the size of the scrollback history buffer.
-i            Interrupt output sooner when flow control is on.

外部命令还有man可以查看帮助手册

man手册的分类(一般分为九类,但是只有前八类比较常用)

1 普通的命令(外部程序或者shell命令)

2 系统调用(内核提供的函数)

3 库调用(库中提供的函数)

4 特殊文件(经常是/dev下的设备文件)

5 文件格式,在其中会说明配置文件的格式

6 游戏相关

7 杂项

8 管理员命令

9 内核程序(非标准)

可以通过man -f man查看哪类,也可以通过 whatis查看

一般格式

command [options] [arguments]
- command:命令
- options:--单词 或 -单字
- arguments:参数,有时候选项也带参数。

进阶

1、编译安装LNMP,配置自定义404页面,配置访问日志为json格式。

编译php

下载源文件

 ./configure --prefix=/opt/php74 --enable-fpm  --with-libzip --with-openssl  --with-freetype --with-jpeg --enable-bcmath   --enable-pcntl
make 
make install

配置
vim /lib/systemd/system/php74-fpm.service

[Unit]
Description=The PHP 7.4 FastCGI Process Manager
After=network.target

[Service]
Type=simple
PIDFile=/opt/php74/var/run/php-fpm.pid
ExecStart=/opt/php74/sbin/php-fpm --nodaemonize --fpm-config /opt/php74/etc/php-fpm.conf
ExecReload=/bin/kill -USR2 $MAINPID

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target


systemctl start php74-fpm

编译openresty

./configure --prefix=/opt/openresty             --with-luajit             --with-http_iconv_module

gmake
gmake install

nginx 配置文件

自定义404 和 问日志为json格式

#user  nobody;
worker_processes  1;

#error_log  logs/error.log;
#error_log  logs/error.log  notice;
#error_log  logs/error.log  info;

#pid        logs/nginx.pid;


events {
    worker_connections  1024;
}


http {
    include       mime.types;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;

    log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

    log_format log_json '{ "@timestamp": "$time_local", '
'"remote_addr": "$remote_addr", '
'"referer": "$http_referer", '
'"request": "$request", '
'"status": $status, '
'"bytes": $body_bytes_sent, '
'"agent": "$http_user_agent", '
'"x_forwarded": "$http_x_forwarded_for", '
'"up_addr": "$upstream_addr",'
'"up_host": "$upstream_http_host",'
'"up_resp_time": "$upstream_response_time",'
'"request_time": "$request_time"'
' }';

    access_log  /var/run/access.log  log_json;

    sendfile        on;
    #tcp_nopush     on;

    #keepalive_timeout  0;
    keepalive_timeout  65;

    #gzip  on;

    server {
        listen       80;
        server_name  blog.chromev.com localhost;
    root /var/www/php;
        #charset koi8-r;

        #access_log  logs/host.access.log  main;

        location / {
            index  index.html index.htm index.php;
        }

        error_page  404              404.html;

        # redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html
        #
        error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
        location = /50x.html {
            root   html;
        }
    location = /404.html {
            root   /var/www/html2;
        }

        # proxy the PHP scripts to Apache listening on 127.0.0.1:80
        #
        #location ~ \.php$ {
        #    proxy_pass   http://127.0.0.1;
        #}

        # pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000
        #
        location ~ \.php$ {
            fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;
            fastcgi_index  index.php;
            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
            include        fastcgi_params;
        }

        # deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
        # concurs with nginx's one
        #
        #location ~ /\.ht {
        #    deny  all;
        #}
    }


    # another virtual host using mix of IP-, name-, and port-based configuration
    #
    #server {
    #    listen       8000;
    #    listen       somename:8080;
    #    server_name  somename  alias  another.alias;

    #    location / {
    #        root   html;
    #        index  index.html index.htm;
    #    }
    #}


    # HTTPS server
    #
    #server {
    #    listen       443 ssl;
    #    server_name  localhost;

    #    ssl_certificate      cert.pem;
    #    ssl_certificate_key  cert.key;

    #    ssl_session_cache    shared:SSL:1m;
    #    ssl_session_timeout  5m;

    #    ssl_ciphers  HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5;
    #    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers  on;

    #    location / {
    #        root   html;
    #        index  index.html index.htm;
    #    }
    #}

}

json格式

 tail -f /var/run/access.log
 { "@timestamp": "19/Apr/2020:21:48:52 +0800", "remote_addr": "108.162.215.50", "referer": "http://blog.chromev.com/asd", "request": "GET /404.html HTTP/1.1", "status": 304, "bytes": 0, "agent": "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_14_6) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/80.0.3987.163 Safari/537.36", "x_forwarded": "36.57.145.226", "up_addr": "-","up_host": "-","up_resp_time": "-","request_time": "0.000" }

2、配置虚拟主机,实现https访问www.x.com(x.com为自己定义的域名)

基于OpenSSL自建CA和颁发SSL证书

CA服务器上操作

1 生成根证书

1) 配置文件

 /etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf 

2)在CA目录下创建两个初始文件

 cd  /etc/pki/CA 
 touch index.txt serial
 echo 01 > serial

3) 生成根密钥

 cd /etc/pki/CA/
 openssl genrsa -out private/cakey.pem 2048

为了安全起见,修改cakey.pem私钥文件权限为600或400,也可以使用子shell生成( umask 077; openssl genrsa -out private/cakey.pem 2048 ),下面不再重复。

4) 生成根证书 (需要加入本机)

使用req命令生成自签证书

cd /etc/pki/CA/
openssl req -new -x509 -key private/cakey.pem -out cacert.pem

WEB服务器上

2 生成nginx web服务器生成ssl密钥

1) 生成私钥

cd /opt/openresty/nginx/ssl/
openssl genrsa -out nginx.key 2048

2) 为nginx生成证书签署请求

cd /opt/openresty/nginx/ssl/
openssl req -new -key nginx.key -out nginx.csr
...
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:CN
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:GD
Locality Name (eg, city) []:SZ
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:COMPANY
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:IT_SECTION
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []: blog.chroemv.com 
Email Address []:

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:
An optional company name []:
...

同样会提示输入一些内容,其它随便,除了Commone Name一定要是你要授予证书的服务器域名或主机名,challenge password不填。

3) 用 CA公钥加签

openssl ca -in nginx.csr -out nginx.crt

3 使用证书

1) Nginx 使用 ssl 证书

# HTTPS server
    #
    server {
        listen       443 ssl;
        server_name  blog.chromev.com;
    root /var/www/php/;
        #ssl_certificate      cert.pem;
        #ssl_certificate_key  cert.key;
        ssl_certificate      /opt/openresty/nginx/ssl/nginx.crt;
        ssl_certificate_key  /opt/openresty/nginx/ssl/nginx.key;

        ssl_session_cache    shared:SSL:1m;
        ssl_session_timeout  5m;

        ssl_ciphers  HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5;
        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers  on;

        location / {
            index  index.html index.htm;
        }
        location ~ \.php$ {
            fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;
            fastcgi_index  index.php;
            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
            include        fastcgi_params;
        }
    }

2 添加 CA 根证书到操作系统获得信任

mac 添加

sudo security add-trusted-cert -d -r trustRoot -k /Library/Keychains/System.keychain /cacert.pem

除了用命令行管理证书,还可以在 钥匙串访问中进行管理

Linux (CentOs 6)

#安装 ca-certificates package:

yum install ca-certificates

#启用dynamic CA configuration feature:

update-ca-trust force-enable

#将证书文件放到 /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/ 目录下

mv /cacert.pem /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/

#执行:

update-ca-trust extract

3 验证是否成功

curl -k  https://blog.chromev.com
<h4>Hello World</h4>
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