python3 调用ansible api使用说明

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python3 安装ansible 模块

pip3 install ansible

pip3 install ansible_runner

pip3 install ansible_inventory

pip3 install ansible_playbook

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获取官方实例并修改

https://docs.ansible.com/ansible/latest/dev_guide/developing_api.html

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核心类介绍

导入类完整路径 功能用途
from ansible.module_utils.common.collections import ImmutableDict 用于添加选项。比如: 指定远程用户remote_user=None
from ansible.parsing.dataloader import DataLoader 读取 json/ymal/ini 格式的文件的数据解析器
from ansible.vars.manager import VariableManager 管理主机和主机组的变量管理器
from ansible.inventory.manager import InventoryManager 管理资源库的,可以指定一个 inventory 文件等
from ansible.playbook.play import Play 用于执行 Ad-hoc 的类 ,需要传入相应的参数
from ansible.executor.task_queue_manager import TaskQueueManager ansible 底层用到的任务队列管理器
ansible.plugins.callback.CallbackBase 处理任务执行后返回的状态
from ansible import context 上下文管理器,他就是用来接收 ImmutableDict 的示例对象
import ansible.constants as C 用于获取 ansible 产生的临时文档。
from ansible.executor.playbook_executor import PlaybookExecutor 执行 playbook 的核心类
from ansible.inventory.host import Group 主机组 执行操作 ,可以给组添加变量等操作,扩展
from ansible.inventory.host import Host 主机 执行操作 ,可以给主机添加变量等操作,扩展
[root@dev-technology-215l shell]# cat ansible2.py   
import json  
import shutil  
from ansible.module_utils.common.collections import ImmutableDict  
from ansible.parsing.dataloader import DataLoader  
from ansible.vars.manager import VariableManager  
from ansible.inventory.manager import InventoryManager  
from ansible.playbook.play import Play  
from ansible.executor.task_queue_manager import TaskQueueManager  
from ansible.plugins.callback import CallbackBase  
from ansible import context  
import ansible.constants as C

  
class ResultCallback(CallbackBase):  
    """  
    重写callbackBase类的部分方法  
    """  
    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):  
        super().__init__(*args, **kwargs)  
        self.host_ok = {}  
        self.host_unreachable = {}  
        self.host_failed = {}  
        self.task_ok = {}  
    def v2_runner_on_unreachable(self, result):  
        self.host_unreachable[result._host.get_name()] = result

    def v2_runner_on_ok(self, result, **kwargs):  
        self.host_ok[result._host.get_name()] = result

    def v2_runner_on_failed(self, result, **kwargs):  
        self.host_failed[result._host.get_name()] = result

class MyAnsiable2():  
    def __init__(self,  
        connection='local',  # 连接方式 local 本地方式,smart ssh方式  
        remote_user=None,    # ssh 用户  
        remote_password=None,  # ssh 用户的密码,应该是一个字典, key 必须是 conn_pass  
        private_key_file=None,  # 指定自定义的私钥地址  
        sudo=None, sudo_user=None, ask_sudo_pass=None,  
        module_path=None,    # 模块路径,可以指定一个自定义模块的路径  
        become=None,         # 是否提权  
        become_method=None,  # 提权方式 默认 sudo 可以是 su  
        become_user=None,  # 提权后,要成为的用户,并非登录用户  
        check=False, diff=False,  
        listhosts=None, listtasks=None,listtags=None,  
        verbosity=3,  
        syntax=None,  
        start_at_task=None,  
        inventory=None):

        # 函数文档注释  
        """  
        初始化函数,定义的默认的选项值,  
        在初始化的时候可以传参,以便覆盖默认选项的值  
        """  
        context.CLIARGS = ImmutableDict(  
            connection=connection,  
            remote_user=remote_user,  
            private_key_file=private_key_file,  
            sudo=sudo,  
            sudo_user=sudo_user,  
            ask_sudo_pass=ask_sudo_pass,  
            module_path=module_path,  
            become=become,  
            become_method=become_method,  
            become_user=become_user,  
            verbosity=verbosity,  
            listhosts=listhosts,  
            listtasks=listtasks,  
            listtags=listtags,  
            syntax=syntax,  
            start_at_task=start_at_task,  
        )

        # 三元表达式,假如没有传递 inventory, 就使用 "localhost,"  
        # 指定 inventory 文件  
        # inventory 的值可以是一个 资产清单文件  
        # 也可以是一个包含主机的元组,这个仅仅适用于测试  
        #  比如 : 1.1.1.1,    # 如果只有一个 IP 最后必须有英文的逗号  
        #  或者: 1.1.1.1, 2.2.2.2

        self.inventory = inventory if inventory else "localhost,"

        # 实例化数据解析器  
        self.loader = DataLoader()

        # 实例化 资产配置对象  
        self.inv_obj = InventoryManager(loader=self.loader, sources=self.inventory)

        # 设置密码  
        self.passwords = remote_password

        # 实例化回调插件对象  
        self.results_callback = ResultCallback()

        # 变量管理器  
        self.variable_manager = VariableManager(self.loader, self.inv_obj)

    def run(self, hosts='localhost', gether_facts="no", module="ping", args='', task_time=0):  
        """  
        参数说明:  
        task_time -- 执行异步任务时等待的秒数,这个需要大于 0 ,等于 0 的时候不支持异步(默认值)。这个值应该等于执行任务实际耗时时间为好  
        """  
        play_source =  dict(  
            name = "Ad-hoc",  
            hosts = hosts,  
            gather_facts = gether_facts,  
            tasks = [  
                # 这里每个 task 就是这个列表中的一个元素,格式是嵌套的字典  
                # 也可以作为参数传递过来,这里就简单化了。  
               {"action":{"module": module, "args": args}, "async": task_time, "poll": 0}])

        play = Play().load(play_source, variable_manager=self.variable_manager, loader=self.loader)

        tqm = None  
        try:  
            tqm = TaskQueueManager(  
                      inventory=self.inv_obj ,  
                      variable_manager=self.variable_manager,  
                      loader=self.loader,  
                      passwords=self.passwords,  
                      stdout_callback=self.results_callback)

            result = tqm.run(play)  
        finally:  
            if tqm is not None:  
                tqm.cleanup()  
            shutil.rmtree(C.DEFAULT_LOCAL_TMP, True)

    def playbook(self,playbooks):  
        """  
        Keyword arguments:  
        playbooks --  需要是一个列表类型  
        """  
        from ansible.executor.playbook_executor import PlaybookExecutor

        playbook = PlaybookExecutor(playbooks=playbooks,  
                        inventory=self.inv_obj,  
                        variable_manager=self.variable_manager,  
                        loader=self.loader,  
                        passwords=self.passwords)

        # 使用回调函数  
        playbook._tqm._stdout_callback = self.results_callback

        result = playbook.run()

  
    def get_result(self):  
      result_raw = {'success':{},'failed':{},'unreachable':{}}

      # print(self.results_callback.host_ok)  
      for host,result in self.results_callback.host_ok.items():  
          result_raw['success'][host] = result._result  
      for host,result in self.results_callback.host_failed.items():  
          result_raw['failed'][host] = result._result  
      for host,result in self.results_callback.host_unreachable.items():  
          result_raw['unreachable'][host] = result._result

      # 最终打印结果,并且使用 JSON 继续格式化  
      print(json.dumps(result_raw, indent=4))  
        
      return json.dumps(result_raw)

测试run ansible

[root@dev-technology-215l shell]# cat ansible_run_wc.py   
from ansible2 import *   #引用修改过的ansible2.py 的所有模块  
import ansible_runner  
import subprocess  
import os, sys, json, datetime, time

ansible3 = MyAnsiable2(inventory='/data/ansible/host/hosts', connection='smart')      #创建资源库对象

ansible3.run(hosts= "192.168.0.94", module="shell", args='pm2 ls | grep sk_service_design_calculate_rda | wc -l')

stdout_dict = json.loads(ansible3.get_result())  
print(stdout_dict,type(stdout_dict))  
print(stdout_dict['success']['192.168.0.94']['stdout'],'######wc')
运行结果:
[root@dev-technology-215l shell]# python ansible_run_wc.py   
[WARNING]: Invalid characters were found in group names but not replaced, use -vvvv to see details  
{  
    "success": {  
        "192.168.0.94": {  
            "changed": true,  
            "end": "2020-07-06 14:59:30.529462",  
            "stdout": "3",  
            "cmd": "pm2 ls|grep sk_service_design_calculate_rda|wc -l",  
            "rc": 0,  
            "start": "2020-07-06 14:59:30.309994",  
            "stderr": "",  
            "delta": "0:00:00.219468",  
            "invocation": {  
                "module_args": {  
                    "creates": null,  
                    "executable": null,  
                    "_uses_shell": true,  
                    "strip_empty_ends": true,  
                    "_raw_params": "pm2 ls|grep sk_service_design_calculate_rda|wc -l",  
                    "removes": null,  
                    "argv": null,  
                    "warn": true,  
                    "chdir": null,  
                    "stdin_add_newline": true,  
                    "stdin": null  
                }  
            },  
            "stdout_lines": [  
                "3"  
            ],  
            "stderr_lines": [],  
            "ansible_facts": {  
                "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"  
            },  
            "_ansible_no_log": false  
        }  
    },  
    "failed": {},  
    "unreachable": {}  
}

  
{'success': {'192.168.0.94': {'changed': True, 'end': '2020-07-06 14:59:30.529462', 'stdout': '3', 'cmd': 'pm2 ls|grep sk_service_design_calculate_rda|wc -l', 'rc': 0, 'start': '2020-07-06 14:59:30.309994', 'stderr': '', 'delta': '0:00:00.219468', 'invocation': {'module_args': {'creates': None, 'executable': None, '_uses_shell': True, 'strip_empty_ends': True, '_raw_params': 'pm2 ls|grep sk_service_design_calculate_rda|wc -l', 'removes': None, 'argv': None, 'warn': True, 'chdir': None, 'stdin_add_newline': True, 'stdin': None}}, 'stdout_lines': ['3'], 'stderr_lines': [], 'ansible_facts': {'discovered_interpreter_python': '/usr/bin/python'}, '_ansible_no_log': False}}, 'failed': {}, 'unreachable': {}} <class 'dict'>

  
3 ######wc

ansible playbook 测试

ansible-playbook python 脚本
[root@dev-technology-215l shell]# cat ansible_playbook_test.py 
from ansible2 import *
import ansible_runner
import subprocess
import os, sys, json, datetime, time
import urllib.request




ansible3 = MyAnsiable2(inventory='/data/ansible/host/hosts', connection='smart')

ansible3.playbook(playbooks=['test.yml'])

stdout_dict = json.loads(ansible3.get_result())
print(stdout_dict,type(stdout_dict))
#print(stdout_dict['success']['192.168.0.94']['stdout'])
test.yml
[root@dev-technology-215l shell]# grep -C5 192.168.0.94 /data/ansible/host/hosts 

###rda-环境node高负载应用linux标准A组###
[rda-highload-node-service-linux-stdA]
192.168.0.94 ansible_ssh_user=root ansible_ssh_pass="Sxxx-xxxx"
- name: test server
  hosts: 'rda-highload-node-service-linux-stdA'
  tasks:
        - name: online pm2 ls
          raw: ls /data/
测试结果
[root@dev-technology-215l shell]# python ansible_playbook_test.py 
[WARNING]: Invalid characters were found in group names but not replaced, use -vvvv to see details
{
    "success": {
        "192.168.0.94": {
            "rc": 0,
            "stdout": "lost+found  pm2-log  pm2-web  rsyslog  samba  xxxx-java  xxxx-node  source\r\n",
            "stdout_lines": [
                "lost+found  pm2-log  pm2-web  rsyslog  samba  xxxx-java  xxxx-node  source"
            ],
            "stderr": "Shared connection to 192.168.0.94 closed.\r\n",
            "stderr_lines": [
                "Shared connection to 192.168.0.94 closed."
            ],
            "changed": true,
            "_ansible_no_log": false
        }
    },
    "failed": {},
    "unreachable": {}
}
{'success': {'192.168.0.94': {'rc': 0, 'stdout': 'lost+found  pm2-log  pm2-web  rsyslog  samba  xxxx-java  xxxx-node  source\r\n', 'stdout_lines': ['lost+found  pm2-log  pm2-web  rsyslog  samba  xxxx-java  xxxx-node  source'], 'stderr': 'Shared connection to 192.168.0.94 closed.\r\n', 'stderr_lines': ['Shared connection to 192.168.0.94 closed.'], 'changed': True, '_ansible_no_log': False}}, 'failed': {}, 'unreachable': {}} <class 'dict'>
[root@dev-technology-215l shell]#
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