struts的动态代理:ActionProxy和ActionInvocation

Crystal_dan

本文分析的源码涉及三个方面:

1  struts中使用到的动态代理:ActionProxy 和 ActionInvocation

2  struts中是如何处理拦截器和action请求的

3  struts中是如何处理结果的

每个请求都会通过Dispatcher中的serviceAction方法,这个方法中有很重要的一句代码

String namespace = mapping.getNamespace();
String name = mapping.getName();
String method = mapping.getMethod();

//步骤1 
ActionProxy proxy = getContainer().getInstance(ActionProxyFactory.class).createActionProxy(
        namespace, name, method, extraContext, true, false);

request.setAttribute(ServletActionContext.STRUTS_VALUESTACK_KEY, proxy.getInvocation().getStack());

// if the ActionMapping says to go straight to a result, do it!
//  后面再分析result
if (mapping.getResult() != null) {
    Result result = mapping.getResult();
    result.execute(proxy.getInvocation());
} else {
    // 步骤2 
    proxy.execute();
}

这里面比较重要的一句是获取proxy的这一句,从container中先获取一个ActionProxyFactory的实例,然后根据命名空间(struts.xml的package?),action的名字,方法名,上下文生成一个ActionProxy,实际是ActionProxy执行了action。

ActionProxyFactory如何创建ActionProxy?

ActionProxyFactory是一个接口,默认的工厂类是DefaultActionProxyFactory,其中的createActionProxy方法如下:

public ActionProxy createActionProxy(String namespace, String actionName, String methodName, Map<String, Object> extraContext, boolean executeResult, boolean cleanupContext) {
    //  创建了一个ActionInvocation实例
    ActionInvocation inv = createActionInvocation(extraContext, true);
    container.inject(inv);
    // 通过下面的createActionProxy可知ActionProxy中持有了对ActionInvocation的引用
    return createActionProxy(inv, namespace, actionName, methodName, executeResult, cleanupContext);
}
 
protected ActionInvocation createActionInvocation(Map<String, Object> extraContext, boolean pushAction) {
    return new DefaultActionInvocation(extraContext, pushAction);
}
 
public ActionProxy createActionProxy(ActionInvocation inv, String namespace, String actionName, String methodName, boolean executeResult, boolean cleanupContext) {
    //  传进去的inv会在prepare的时候用到
    DefaultActionProxy proxy = new DefaultActionProxy(inv, namespace, actionName, methodName, executeResult, cleanupContext);
    container.inject(proxy);
    // 有一些初始化操作,比如methodname是null的时候就默认执行execute方法
    proxy.prepare();
    return proxy;
}

在上面的proxy.prepare 中,除了会对methodname有处理,还有重要的一步是invocation.init(this),这里的invocation就是new DefaultActionProxy的时候传入的inv,下面看看DefaultActionInvocation中的init会做些什么

public void init(ActionProxy proxy) {
    // 可见actionInvocation中也持有一个actionProxy的引用
    this.proxy = proxy;
    Map<String, Object> contextMap = createContextMap();
    // Setting this so that other classes, like object factories, can use the ActionProxy and other
    // contextual information to operate
    ActionContext actionContext = ActionContext.getContext();
    if (actionContext != null) {
        //  actionContext也有一个对actioninvocation的引用
        actionContext.setActionInvocation(this);
    }
    //  创建action实例
    createAction(contextMap);
    if (pushAction) {
        stack.push(action);
        contextMap.put("action", action);
    }
    invocationContext = new ActionContext(contextMap);
    invocationContext.setName(proxy.getActionName());
    //创建相关拦截器
    createInterceptors(proxy);
}
 
//具体看下actioninvocation是如何创建一个action的
protected void createAction(Map<String, Object> contextMap) {
    // load action
    String timerKey = "actionCreate: " + proxy.getActionName();
    try {
        UtilTimerStack.push(timerKey);
        // actioninvocation中有一个action的全局变量
        // 主要就是这一句,这里用到了objectfactory,这个工厂类持有对actionfactory的引用,实际是调用了actionfactory的buildaction
        // todo actionfactory的buildaction  后面再具体看actionfactory
        action = objectFactory.buildAction(proxy.getActionName(), proxy.getNamespace(), proxy.getConfig(), contextMap);
    } catch (InstantiationException e) {
        throw new XWorkException("Unable to intantiate Action!", e, proxy.getConfig());
    } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
        throw new XWorkException("Illegal access to constructor, is it public?", e, proxy.getConfig());
    } catch (Exception e) {
        String gripe;
        if (proxy == null) {
            gripe = "Whoa!  No ActionProxy instance found in current ActionInvocation.  This is bad ... very bad";
        } else if (proxy.getConfig() == null) {
            gripe = "Sheesh.  Where'd that ActionProxy get to?  I can't find it in the current ActionInvocation!?";
        } else if (proxy.getConfig().getClassName() == null) {
            gripe = "No Action defined for '" + proxy.getActionName() + "' in namespace '" + proxy.getNamespace() + "'";
        } else {
            gripe = "Unable to instantiate Action, " + proxy.getConfig().getClassName() + ",  defined for '" + proxy.getActionName() + "' in namespace '" + proxy.getNamespace() + "'";
        }
        gripe += (((" -- " + e.getMessage()) != null) ? e.getMessage() : " [no message in exception]");
        throw new XWorkException(gripe, e, proxy.getConfig());
    } finally {
        UtilTimerStack.pop(timerKey);
    }
    if (actionEventListener != null) {
        action = actionEventListener.prepare(action, stack);
    }
}
 
//创建拦截器就比较简单了,根据配置文件把所有的拦截器放在一个list中
protected void createInterceptors(ActionProxy proxy) {
    // get a new List so we don't get problems with the iterator if someone changes the list
    List<InterceptorMapping> interceptorList = new ArrayList<InterceptorMapping>(proxy.getConfig().getInterceptors());
    interceptors = interceptorList.iterator();
}

理一下前面的:

dispatcher中先创建了actionproxy,同时会创建一个actioninvocation,然后对methodname对处理,创建action实例,创建拦截器list。

到目前为止,dispatcher中的步骤1 完成。现在开始步骤2,步骤2就是具体的要执行action的execute方法。

DefaultActionProxy的execute代码如下

public String execute() throws Exception {
    //context  相关后续分析
    ActionContext nestedContext = ActionContext.getContext();
    ActionContext.setContext(invocation.getInvocationContext());

    String retCode = null;

    String profileKey = "execute: ";
    try {
        UtilTimerStack.push(profileKey);
        //  proxy中使用invocation完成action的执行,和java的动态代理是一样的
        retCode = invocation.invoke();
    } finally {
        if (cleanupContext) {
            ActionContext.setContext(nestedContext);
        }
        UtilTimerStack.pop(profileKey);
    }

    return retCode;
}

接着看看DefaultActionInvocation的invoke做了什么:

public String invoke() throws Exception {
    String profileKey = "invoke: ";
    try {
        UtilTimerStack.push(profileKey);
        if (executed) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("Action has already executed");
        }
        //  这里的interceptors 类型是Iterator<InterceptorMapping>,就是上面createInterceptors的时候被赋值的
        //  遍历interceptors
        if (interceptors.hasNext()) {
            final InterceptorMapping interceptor = interceptors.next();
            String interceptorMsg = "interceptor: " + interceptor.getName();
            UtilTimerStack.push(interceptorMsg);
            try {
                  // 每拿到一个拦截器,就执行拦截器的intercept方法,在拦截器的intercept方法中一定会执行incovation.invoke,就会又调到本方法中
                  // 结合这里,就能够知道拦截器的执行顺序,每个拦截器执行到invocation.invoke之后都会递归的调到下一个拦截器上
                  // 假设有三个拦截器A B C,把每个拦截器在invocation.invoke前的代码成为invoke前,之后的代码成为invoke后
                  // 执行顺序就是:A的invoke前,B的invoke前,c的invoke前,action,c的invoke后,B的invoke后,A的invoke后
                  resultCode = interceptor.getInterceptor().intercept(DefaultActionInvocation.this);
            }
            finally {
                UtilTimerStack.pop(interceptorMsg);
            }
        } else {
            // 拦截器链中最后一个拦截器的invation.invoke就会执行action本身
            resultCode = invokeActionOnly();
        }

        // this is needed because the result will be executed, then control will return to the Interceptor, which will
        // return above and flow through again
        if (!executed) {
            if (preResultListeners != null) {
                LOG.trace("Executing PreResultListeners for result [#0]", result);

                for (Object preResultListener : preResultListeners) {
                    PreResultListener listener = (PreResultListener) preResultListener;

                    String _profileKey = "preResultListener: ";
                    try {
                        UtilTimerStack.push(_profileKey);
                        listener.beforeResult(this, resultCode);
                    }
                    finally {
                        UtilTimerStack.pop(_profileKey);
                    }
                }
            }

            // now execute the result, if we're supposed to
            if (proxy.getExecuteResult()) {
                executeResult();
            }

            executed = true;
        }

        return resultCode;
    }
    finally {
        UtilTimerStack.pop(profileKey);
    }
}
 
public String invokeActionOnly() throws Exception {
    //  这里的getaction方法就是invocation持有的action实例,即在前面创建action实例的时候创建的
    return invokeAction(getAction(), proxy.getConfig());
}

下面看一下invokeAction方法中是怎么执行action的:

protected String invokeAction(Object action, ActionConfig actionConfig) throws Exception {
    // 获取要执行方法名,是否有必要使用默认的execute也早在proxy的prepare中处理过了
    String methodName = proxy.getMethod();
    if (LOG.isDebugEnabled()) {
        LOG.debug("Executing action method = #0", methodName);
    }

    String timerKey = "invokeAction: " + proxy.getActionName();
    try {
        UtilTimerStack.push(timerKey);
        Object methodResult;
        try {
            //使用onglUtil这个工具类执行action的方法,具体的就要了解onglutil做了啥了。。
            methodResult = ognlUtil.callMethod(methodName + "()", getStack().getContext(), action);
        } catch (MethodFailedException e) {
            // if reason is missing method, try find version with "do" prefix
            if (e.getReason() instanceof NoSuchMethodException) {
                try {
                    String altMethodName = "do" + methodName.substring(0, 1).toUpperCase() + methodName.substring(1) + "()";
                    methodResult = ognlUtil.callMethod(altMethodName, getStack().getContext(), action);
                } catch (MethodFailedException e1) {
                    // if still method doesn't exist, try checking UnknownHandlers
                    if (e1.getReason() instanceof NoSuchMethodException) {
                        if (unknownHandlerManager.hasUnknownHandlers()) {
                            try {
                                methodResult = unknownHandlerManager.handleUnknownMethod(action, methodName);
                            } catch (NoSuchMethodException e2) {
                                // throw the original one
                                throw e;
                            }
                        } else {
                            // throw the original one
                            throw e;
                        }
                        // throw the original exception as UnknownHandlers weren't able to handle invocation as well
                        if (methodResult == null) {
                            throw e;
                        }
                    } else {
                        // exception isn't related to missing action method, throw it
                        throw e1;
                    }
                }
            } else {
                // exception isn't related to missing action method, throw it
                throw e;
            }
        }
        // 处理执行完方法后拿到的methodResult,然后返回处理后的结果
        return saveResult(actionConfig, methodResult);
    } catch (NoSuchPropertyException e) {
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("The " + methodName + "() is not defined in action " + getAction().getClass() + "");
    } catch (MethodFailedException e) {
        // We try to return the source exception.
        Throwable t = e.getCause();

        if (actionEventListener != null) {
            String result = actionEventListener.handleException(t, getStack());
            if (result != null) {
                return result;
            }
        }
        if (t instanceof Exception) {
            throw (Exception) t;
        } else {
            throw e;
        }
    } finally {
        UtilTimerStack.pop(timerKey);
    }
}

saveReult:

// 如果methodresult是Result类型就保存到explicitResult(explicitResult是actioninvocation中一个Rsult类型的全局变量)上,返回null,否则直接返回string的methodResult
protected String saveResult(ActionConfig actionConfig, Object methodResult) {
    if (methodResult instanceof Result) {
        this.explicitResult = (Result) methodResult;

        // Wire the result automatically
        container.inject(explicitResult);
        return null;
    } else {
        return (String) methodResult;
    }
}

再回到invoke中,执行完action之后有一段代码

// now execute the result, if we're supposed to
if (proxy.getExecuteResult()) {
    executeResult();
}
 
// 具体的executeResult如下
private void executeResult() throws Exception {
    // create a Result
    result = createResult();

    String timerKey = "executeResult: " + getResultCode();
    try {
        UtilTimerStack.push(timerKey);
        if (result != null) {
            // 执行Result的execute
            result.execute(this);
        } else if (resultCode != null && !Action.NONE.equals(resultCode)) {
            throw new ConfigurationException("No result defined for action " + getAction().getClass().getName()
                    + " and result " + getResultCode(), proxy.getConfig());
        } else {
            if (LOG.isDebugEnabled()) {
                LOG.debug("No result returned for action " + getAction().getClass().getName() + " at " + proxy.getConfig().getLocation());
            }
        }
    } finally {
        UtilTimerStack.pop(timerKey);
    }
}
 
//具体的createResult如下
public Result createResult() throws Exception {
    LOG.trace("Creating result related to resultCode [#0]", resultCode);
    if (explicitResult != null) {
        把之前在saveResult中保存到explicitResult中的值赋值到ret中,同时explicitResult清空
        Result ret = explicitResult;
        explicitResult = null;
        // 如果explicitResult不为空,即之前获得的结果直接就是一个result类型,那么直接返回
        // 否则之前获得结果是一个普通的字符串,需要找到字符串对应的Result
        return ret;
    }
    
    ActionConfig config = proxy.getConfig();
    // 配置文件中配置的result节点信息
    Map<String, ResultConfig> results = config.getResults();

    ResultConfig resultConfig = null;

    try {
        //  尝试获取resultCode对应的resultconfig
        resultConfig = results.get(resultCode);
    } catch (NullPointerException e) {
        if (LOG.isDebugEnabled()) {
            LOG.debug("Got NPE trying to read result configuration for resultCode [#0]", resultCode);
        }
    }
    if (resultConfig == null) {
        // If no result is found for the given resultCode, try to get a wildcard '*' match.
        resultConfig = results.get("*");
    }
    if (resultConfig != null) {
        try {
            // 根据resultconfig 构造一个Result返回
            return objectFactory.buildResult(resultConfig, invocationContext.getContextMap());
        } catch (Exception e) {
            if (LOG.isErrorEnabled()) {
                LOG.error("There was an exception while instantiating the result of type #0", e, resultConfig.getClassName());
            }
            throw new XWorkException(e, resultConfig);
        }
    } else if (resultCode != null && !Action.NONE.equals(resultCode) && unknownHandlerManager.hasUnknownHandlers()) {
        return unknownHandlerManager.handleUnknownResult(invocationContext, proxy.getActionName(), proxy.getConfig(), resultCode);
    }
    return null;
}

那么,Result到底是什么?

// Result接口很简单,只提供一个execute方法
public interface Result extends Serializable {

    /**
     * Represents a generic interface for all action execution results.
     * Whether that be displaying a webpage, generating an email, sending a JMS message, etc.
     *
     * @param invocation  the invocation context.
     * @throws Exception can be thrown.
     */
    public void execute(ActionInvocation invocation) throws Exception;

}

struts在配置action的时候,会相应的配置result节点,其中包括result的type,每一个type其实对应一个具体的Result实现类,上面的objectFactory.buildResult实则调的是resultFactory的buildResult。

默认的ResultFactory是StrutsResultFactory

public Result buildResult(ResultConfig resultConfig, Map<String, Object> extraContext) throws Exception {
    // config中有配置type,找到对应的具体result实现类
    String resultClassName = resultConfig.getClassName();
    Result result = null;

    if (resultClassName != null) {
        //  生成具体result实现类的实例
        // 回到上面的result.execute,就可知道这个时候获取了result实例,不同type的result的execute有不同的处理
        result = (Result) objectFactory.buildBean(resultClassName, extraContext);
        Map<String, String> params = resultConfig.getParams();
        if (params != null) {
            setParameters(extraContext, result, params);
        }
    }
    return result;
}

至此,大概知道了struts的动态代理的使用,如何用动态代理模式处理action请求和拦截器,如何处理result。

todo:

1  上面只是大概流程,可找几点具体分析

2  context相关

3 struts的工厂类 ObjectFactory及具体的各种工厂类

4 msite现在使用的json result是如何处理的。

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