react-router源码解读

前端阅读室

注:react-router版本为v5.2.0

预备知识

1.前端基础:history、location。

2.react: refs转发、context、useContext(react Hooks)。

3.依赖库:

history(^4.9.0)

path-to-regexp(^1.7.0):主要用到pathToRegexp.compile(path)、pathToRegexp(path, keys, options)两个方法

history库(^4.9.0)

history库是react-router依赖的核心库,它将应用的history做了统一的抽象,包含一系列统一的属性和方法,支持浏览器的BrowserHistory、HashHistory以及服务端的MemoryHistory。

createBrowserHistory的属性和方法

length: globalHistory.length,
action: 'POP',
location: initialLocation,
createHref,
push,
replace,
go,
goBack,
goForward,
block,
listen

createHashHistory的属性和方法

length: globalHistory.length,
action: 'POP',
location: initialLocation,
createHref,
push,
replace,
go,
goBack,
goForward,
block,
listen

createMemoryHistory的属性和方法

length: entries.length,
action: 'POP',
location: entries[index],
index,
entries,
createHref,
push,
replace,
go,
goBack,
goForward,
canGo,
block,
listen

接下来我们讲解一下这三种history的具体实现。

createTransitionManager

createTransitionManager可以创建一个TransitionManager来帮助history管理各种行为,它被三种history都使用了,我们先来介绍它。

这是createTransitionManager的主要功能代码,很容易理解,就是实现了一个发布订阅模式。

let listeners = [];

function appendListener(fn) {
  let isActive = true;

  function listener(...args) {
    if (isActive) fn(...args);
  }

  listeners.push(listener);

  return () => {
    isActive = false;
    listeners = listeners.filter(item => item !== listener);
  };
}

function notifyListeners(...args) {
  listeners.forEach(listener => listener(...args));
}

setPrompt()是显示可提示用户进行输入的对话框的意思,这个功能主要是为了一些典型场景,比如:用户点击手机的返回键,让用户确认是否返回上一个url。

let prompt = null;

function setPrompt(nextPrompt) {
  warning(prompt == null, 'A history supports only one prompt at a time');

  prompt = nextPrompt;

  return () => {
    if (prompt === nextPrompt) prompt = null;
  };
}

confirmTransitionTo在history的行为方法中(push、pop、replace)都会被调用,它的作用是拦截每个行为,让用户或开发者确认能否执行这个行为。

function confirmTransitionTo(
  location,
  action,
  getUserConfirmation,
  callback
) {
  // TODO: If another transition starts while we're still confirming
  // the previous one, we may end up in a weird state. Figure out the
  // best way to handle this.
  if (prompt != null) {
    const result =
      typeof prompt === 'function' ? prompt(location, action) : prompt;

    if (typeof result === 'string') {
      if (typeof getUserConfirmation === 'function') {
        getUserConfirmation(result, callback);
      } else {
        warning(
          false,
          'A history needs a getUserConfirmation function in order to use a prompt message'
        );

        callback(true);
      }
    } else {
      // Return false from a transition hook to cancel the transition.
      callback(result !== false);
    }
  } else {
    callback(true);
  }
}

例如,push方法中confirmTransitionTo是这样使用的,在第四个参数callback中根据返回值是否为true,判断是否真正执行push行为。

function push(path, state) {

  const action = 'PUSH';
  // ...
  
  transitionManager.confirmTransitionTo(
    location,
    action,
    getUserConfirmation,
    ok => {
      if (!ok) return;

      // ...
    }
  );
}

history.listen

history.listen在浏览器中主要是利用DOM方法进行事件监听的绑定和取消。

browserHistory中的实现

browserHistory使用的是popstate和hashchange事件。

同时会将监听触发的回调函数添加到前面介绍的transitionManager中,这样监听触发时只需要通过执行transitionManager.notifyListeners()发送通知,执行这些回调函数就可以了。

const PopStateEvent = 'popstate';
const HashChangeEvent = 'hashchange';

let listenerCount = 0;

function checkDOMListeners(delta) {
  listenerCount += delta;

  if (listenerCount === 1 && delta === 1) {
    window.addEventListener(PopStateEvent, handlePopState);

    if (needsHashChangeListener)
      window.addEventListener(HashChangeEvent, handleHashChange);
  } else if (listenerCount === 0) {
    window.removeEventListener(PopStateEvent, handlePopState);

    if (needsHashChangeListener)
      window.removeEventListener(HashChangeEvent, handleHashChange);
  }
}

function listen(listener) {
  const unlisten = transitionManager.appendListener(listener);
  checkDOMListeners(1);

  return () => {
    checkDOMListeners(-1);
    unlisten();
  };
}

在很多浏览器中hash change也会触发popstate事件,所以hashchange事件在browserHistory中也是需要监听的。

const needsHashChangeListener = !supportsPopStateOnHashChange();

export function supportsPopStateOnHashChange() {
  return window.navigator.userAgent.indexOf('Trident') === -1;
}

hashHistory中的实现

hashHistory中只需要监听hashchange事件就可以了

const HashChangeEvent = 'hashchange';

let listenerCount = 0;

function checkDOMListeners(delta) {
  listenerCount += delta;

  if (listenerCount === 1 && delta === 1) {
    window.addEventListener(HashChangeEvent, handleHashChange);
  } else if (listenerCount === 0) {
    window.removeEventListener(HashChangeEvent, handleHashChange);
  }
}

memoryHistory中的实现

memoryHistory不需要监听事件,它只需要将监听触发的回调函数添加到transitionManager中就可以了。因为它是服务端主动控制的路由,不需要监听被动的路由改变,进而执行一些状态更新。

function listen(listener) {
  return transitionManager.appendListener(listener);
}

browserHistory中handlePopState的实现

hashHistory和memoryHistory是没有popState事件的,所以不需要实现它们。

handlePopState主要会执行handlePop方法,handlePop主要会执行setState方法,setState方法主要是合并了history状态,通过transitionManager.notifyListeners通知了添加的listener函数执行。

getDOMLocation生成的就是我们经常见到的location参数。

{
  pathname,
  state,
  hash,
  search,
  key,
  ...
}
function handlePopState(event) {
  // Ignore extraneous popstate events in WebKit.
  if (isExtraneousPopstateEvent(event)) return;
  handlePop(getDOMLocation(event.state));
}

function handlePop(location) {
  if (forceNextPop) {
    forceNextPop = false;
    setState();
  } else {
    const action = 'POP';

    transitionManager.confirmTransitionTo(
      location,
      action,
      getUserConfirmation,
      ok => {
        if (ok) {
          setState({ action, location });
        } else {
          revertPop(location);
        }
      }
    );
  }
}

function setState(nextState) {
  Object.assign(history, nextState);
  history.length = globalHistory.length;
  transitionManager.notifyListeners(history.location, history.action);
}

confirmTransitionTo的回调函数范围为false的时候,说明禁止进行这次路由操作。它调用revertPop方法实现,通过计算此次路由操作的delta,调用go(delta)方法将路由恢复到原来的状态,go方法就是原生的history.go方法。

function revertPop(fromLocation) {
  const toLocation = history.location;

  // TODO: We could probably make this more reliable by
  // keeping a list of keys we've seen in sessionStorage.
  // Instead, we just default to 0 for keys we don't know.

  let toIndex = allKeys.indexOf(toLocation.key);

  if (toIndex === -1) toIndex = 0;

  let fromIndex = allKeys.indexOf(fromLocation.key);

  if (fromIndex === -1) fromIndex = 0;

  const delta = toIndex - fromIndex;

  if (delta) {
    forceNextPop = true;
    go(delta);
  }
}

const globalHistory = window.history;

function go(n) {
  globalHistory.go(n);
}

handleHashChange

browserHistory中的实现

它调用的其实主要也是handlePop方法

function getHistoryState() {
  try {
    return window.history.state || {};
  } catch (e) {
    // IE 11 sometimes throws when accessing window.history.state
    // See https://github.com/ReactTraining/history/pull/289
    return {};
  }
}

function handleHashChange() {
  handlePop(getDOMLocation(getHistoryState()));
}

hashHistory中的实现

path !== encodedPath这个判断是为了让我们总是有标准的hash路径,后面的操作判断主要是判断一下前后的location是否相同、是否是ignorePath,如果都不是,则会执行handlePop方法。

function handleHashChange() {
  const path = getHashPath();
  const encodedPath = encodePath(path);

  if (path !== encodedPath) {
    // Ensure we always have a properly-encoded hash.
    replaceHashPath(encodedPath);
  } else {
    const location = getDOMLocation();
    const prevLocation = history.location;

    if (!forceNextPop && locationsAreEqual(prevLocation, location)) return; // A hashchange doesn't always == location change.

    if (ignorePath === createPath(location)) return; // Ignore this change; we already setState in push/replace.

    ignorePath = null;

    handlePop(location);
  }
}

function replaceHashPath(path) {
  const hashIndex = window.location.href.indexOf('#');
  window.location.replace(
    window.location.href.slice(0, hashIndex >= 0 ? hashIndex : 0) + '#' + path
  );
}

handlePop和前面browserHistory介绍的是类似的,有区别的地方是revertPop使用的allPaths作为history的索引,browserHistory使用的allKeys。

function handlePop(location) {
  if (forceNextPop) {
    forceNextPop = false;
    setState();
  } else {
    const action = 'POP';

    transitionManager.confirmTransitionTo(
      location,
      action,
      getUserConfirmation,
      ok => {
        if (ok) {
          setState({ action, location });
        } else {
          revertPop(location);
        }
      }
    );
  }
}

function setState(nextState) {
  Object.assign(history, nextState);
  history.length = globalHistory.length;
  transitionManager.notifyListeners(history.location, history.action);
}

function revertPop(fromLocation) {
  const toLocation = history.location;

  // TODO: We could probably make this more reliable by
  // keeping a list of paths we've seen in sessionStorage.
  // Instead, we just default to 0 for paths we don't know.

  let toIndex = allPaths.lastIndexOf(createPath(toLocation));

  if (toIndex === -1) toIndex = 0;

  let fromIndex = allPaths.lastIndexOf(createPath(fromLocation));

  if (fromIndex === -1) fromIndex = 0;

  const delta = toIndex - fromIndex;

  if (delta) {
    forceNextPop = true;
    go(delta);
  }
}

const globalHistory = window.history;

function go(n) {
  warning(
    canGoWithoutReload,
    'Hash history go(n) causes a full page reload in this browser'
  );

  globalHistory.go(n);
}

allPaths是完整的路径

export function createPath(location) {
  const { pathname, search, hash } = location;

  let path = pathname || '/';

  if (search && search !== '?')
    path += search.charAt(0) === '?' ? search : `?${search}`;

  if (hash && hash !== '#') path += hash.charAt(0) === '#' ? hash : `#${hash}`;

  return path;
}

allKeys是随机的key

  function createKey() {
    return Math.random()
      .toString(36)
      .substr(2, keyLength);
  }

history.push

browserHistory中的实现

history.push方法很简单,主要调用了history.pushState方法。由于allKeys维护了所有history state中的key,所以在push方法需要做相应的处理。

const globalHistory = window.history;

function push(path, state) {
  warning(
    !(
      typeof path === 'object' &&
      path.state !== undefined &&
      state !== undefined
    ),
    'You should avoid providing a 2nd state argument to push when the 1st ' +
      'argument is a location-like object that already has state; it is ignored'
  );

  const action = 'PUSH';
  const location = createLocation(path, state, createKey(), history.location);

  transitionManager.confirmTransitionTo(
    location,
    action,
    getUserConfirmation,
    ok => {
      if (!ok) return;

      const href = createHref(location);
      const { key, state } = location;

      if (canUseHistory) {
        globalHistory.pushState({ key, state }, null, href);

        if (forceRefresh) {
          window.location.href = href;
        } else {
          const prevIndex = allKeys.indexOf(history.location.key);
          const nextKeys = allKeys.slice(
            0,
            prevIndex === -1 ? 0 : prevIndex + 1
          );

          nextKeys.push(location.key);
          allKeys = nextKeys;

          setState({ action, location });
        }
      } else {
        warning(
          state === undefined,
          'Browser history cannot push state in browsers that do not support HTML5 history'
        );

        window.location.href = href;
      }
    }
  );
}

hashHistory中的实现

history.push方法很简单,主要调用了window.location.hash方法。由于allPaths维护了所有的path,所以在push方法需要做相应的处理。

function push(path, state) {
  warning(
    state === undefined,
    'Hash history cannot push state; it is ignored'
  );

  const action = 'PUSH';
  const location = createLocation(
    path,
    undefined,
    undefined,
    history.location
  );

  transitionManager.confirmTransitionTo(
    location,
    action,
    getUserConfirmation,
    ok => {
      if (!ok) return;

      const path = createPath(location);
      const encodedPath = encodePath(basename + path);
      const hashChanged = getHashPath() !== encodedPath;

      if (hashChanged) {
        // We cannot tell if a hashchange was caused by a PUSH, so we'd
        // rather setState here and ignore the hashchange. The caveat here
        // is that other hash histories in the page will consider it a POP.
        ignorePath = path;
        pushHashPath(encodedPath);

        const prevIndex = allPaths.lastIndexOf(createPath(history.location));
        const nextPaths = allPaths.slice(
          0,
          prevIndex === -1 ? 0 : prevIndex + 1
        );

        nextPaths.push(path);
        allPaths = nextPaths;

        setState({ action, location });
      } else {
        warning(
          false,
          'Hash history cannot PUSH the same path; a new entry will not be added to the history stack'
        );

        setState();
      }
    }
  );
}

function pushHashPath(path) {
  window.location.hash = path;
}

memoryHistory中的实现

由于是在内存中维护history的状态,所以主要是history.entries(所有history location列表)的维护。

function push(path, state) {
  warning(
    !(
      typeof path === 'object' &&
      path.state !== undefined &&
      state !== undefined
    ),
    'You should avoid providing a 2nd state argument to push when the 1st ' +
      'argument is a location-like object that already has state; it is ignored'
  );

  const action = 'PUSH';
  const location = createLocation(path, state, createKey(), history.location);

  transitionManager.confirmTransitionTo(
    location,
    action,
    getUserConfirmation,
    ok => {
      if (!ok) return;

      const prevIndex = history.index;
      const nextIndex = prevIndex + 1;

      const nextEntries = history.entries.slice(0);
      if (nextEntries.length > nextIndex) {
        nextEntries.splice(
          nextIndex,
          nextEntries.length - nextIndex,
          location
        );
      } else {
        nextEntries.push(location);
      }

      setState({
        action,
        location,
        index: nextIndex,
        entries: nextEntries
      });
    }
  );
}

function setState(nextState) {
  Object.assign(history, nextState);
  history.length = history.entries.length;
  transitionManager.notifyListeners(history.location, history.action);
}

history.replace()

browerHistory中的实现

history.replace方法和push是类似的,主要调用了history.replaceState方法。

function replace(path, state) {
  warning(
    !(
      typeof path === 'object' &&
      path.state !== undefined &&
      state !== undefined
    ),
    'You should avoid providing a 2nd state argument to replace when the 1st ' +
      'argument is a location-like object that already has state; it is ignored'
  );

  const action = 'REPLACE';
  const location = createLocation(path, state, createKey(), history.location);

  transitionManager.confirmTransitionTo(
    location,
    action,
    getUserConfirmation,
    ok => {
      if (!ok) return;

      const href = createHref(location);
      const { key, state } = location;

      if (canUseHistory) {
        globalHistory.replaceState({ key, state }, null, href);

        if (forceRefresh) {
          window.location.replace(href);
        } else {
          const prevIndex = allKeys.indexOf(history.location.key);

          if (prevIndex !== -1) allKeys[prevIndex] = location.key;

          setState({ action, location });
        }
      } else {
        warning(
          state === undefined,
          'Browser history cannot replace state in browsers that do not support HTML5 history'
        );

        window.location.replace(href);
      }
    }
  );
}

hashHistory中的实现

replace在hashHistory中的实现也很简单,主要调用了window.location.replace方法。

function replace(path, state) {
  warning(
    state === undefined,
    'Hash history cannot replace state; it is ignored'
  );

  const action = 'REPLACE';
  const location = createLocation(
    path,
    undefined,
    undefined,
    history.location
  );

  transitionManager.confirmTransitionTo(
    location,
    action,
    getUserConfirmation,
    ok => {
      if (!ok) return;

      const path = createPath(location);
      const encodedPath = encodePath(basename + path);
      const hashChanged = getHashPath() !== encodedPath;

      if (hashChanged) {
        // We cannot tell if a hashchange was caused by a REPLACE, so we'd
        // rather setState here and ignore the hashchange. The caveat here
        // is that other hash histories in the page will consider it a POP.
        ignorePath = path;
        replaceHashPath(encodedPath);
      }

      const prevIndex = allPaths.indexOf(createPath(history.location));

      if (prevIndex !== -1) allPaths[prevIndex] = path;

      setState({ action, location });
    }
  );
}

function replaceHashPath(path) {
  const hashIndex = window.location.href.indexOf('#');
  window.location.replace(
    window.location.href.slice(0, hashIndex >= 0 ? hashIndex : 0) + '#' + path
  );
}

memoryHistory中的实现

function replace(path, state) {
  warning(
    !(
      typeof path === 'object' &&
      path.state !== undefined &&
      state !== undefined
    ),
    'You should avoid providing a 2nd state argument to replace when the 1st ' +
      'argument is a location-like object that already has state; it is ignored'
  );

  const action = 'REPLACE';
  const location = createLocation(path, state, createKey(), history.location);

  transitionManager.confirmTransitionTo(
    location,
    action,
    getUserConfirmation,
    ok => {
      if (!ok) return;

      history.entries[history.index] = location;

      setState({ action, location });
    }
  );
}

history.go()、history.goBack()、history.goForward()

browserHistory、hashHistory中的实现

function go(n) {
  globalHistory.go(n);
}

function goBack() {
  go(-1);
}

function goForward() {
  go(1);
}

memoryHistory中的实现

计算nextIndex(一般为history.index + n),执行POP action即可。

function clamp(n, lowerBound, upperBound) {
  return Math.min(Math.max(n, lowerBound), upperBound);
}

function go(n) {
  const nextIndex = clamp(history.index + n, 0, history.entries.length - 1);

  const action = 'POP';
  const location = history.entries[nextIndex];

  transitionManager.confirmTransitionTo(
    location,
    action,
    getUserConfirmation,
    ok => {
      if (ok) {
        setState({
          action,
          location,
          index: nextIndex
        });
      } else {
        // Mimic the behavior of DOM histories by
        // causing a render after a cancelled POP.
        setState();
      }
    }
  );
}

function goBack() {
  go(-1);
}

function goForward() {
  go(1);
}

history.block()

browserHistory、hashHistory中的实现

block提供了setPrompt的调用接口,因为我们前面介绍过,push、pop、replace action都是在transitionManager.confirmTransitionTo的回调函数中执行的,只有回调函数返回true,才能真正执行这些action。而前面我们看到回调函数的返回结果其实是由用户传递的prompt方法决定的,这样就可以让用户根据自己的逻辑决定是否阻塞路由跳转了。

let isBlocked = false;

function block(prompt = false) {
  const unblock = transitionManager.setPrompt(prompt);

  if (!isBlocked) {
    checkDOMListeners(1);
    isBlocked = true;
  }

  return () => {
    if (isBlocked) {
      isBlocked = false;
      checkDOMListeners(-1);
    }

    return unblock();
  };
}

memoryHistory中的实现

memoryHistory不需要做DOM事件监听的相关处理。

function block(prompt = false) {
  return transitionManager.setPrompt(prompt);
}

react-router

我们之所以大篇幅介绍history库,是因为history库才是路由管理的底层逻辑,react-router其实只是使用react框架封装了history库的处理(主要使用context跨组件传递history的状态和方法)。介绍到这,你是不是已经能够大致勾勒出诸如<BrowserRouter><Route><Switch><Link>withRouter()等的简单实现了呢?介绍来让我们看看react-router中具体是怎么实现的。

createNamedContext()

该方法可以创建有displayName的context。

// TODO: Replace with React.createContext once we can assume React 16+
import createContext from "mini-create-react-context";

const createNamedContext = name => {
  const context = createContext();
  context.displayName = name;

  return context;
};

export default createNamedContext;

generatePath()

生成路径,主要调用的是pathToRegexp.compile()方法,generatePath可以根据路径path和参数params生成完整的路径。比如('/a/:id', { id: 1 }) -> '/a/1'

import pathToRegexp from "path-to-regexp";

const cache = {};
const cacheLimit = 10000;
let cacheCount = 0;

function compilePath(path) {
  if (cache[path]) return cache[path];

  const generator = pathToRegexp.compile(path);

  if (cacheCount < cacheLimit) {
    cache[path] = generator;
    cacheCount++;
  }

  return generator;
}

/**
 * Public API for generating a URL pathname from a path and parameters.
 */
function generatePath(path = "/", params = {}) {
  return path === "/" ? path : compilePath(path)(params, { pretty: true });
}

export default generatePath;

matchPath()

该方法传入pathname,以及解析pathname的配置,可以得到从pathname中匹配的结果。这是我们使用react-router经常见到的数据,没错,它就是通过matchPath方法解析的。

return {
  path, // the path used to match
  url: path === "/" && url === "" ? "/" : url, // the matched portion of the URL
  isExact, // whether or not we matched exactly
  params: keys.reduce((memo, key, index) => {
    memo[key.name] = values[index];
    return memo;
  }, {})
};
import pathToRegexp from "path-to-regexp";

const cache = {};
const cacheLimit = 10000;
let cacheCount = 0;

function compilePath(path, options) {
  const cacheKey = `${options.end}${options.strict}${options.sensitive}`;
  const pathCache = cache[cacheKey] || (cache[cacheKey] = {});

  if (pathCache[path]) return pathCache[path];

  const keys = [];
  const regexp = pathToRegexp(path, keys, options);
  const result = { regexp, keys };

  if (cacheCount < cacheLimit) {
    pathCache[path] = result;
    cacheCount++;
  }

  return result;
}

/**
 * Public API for matching a URL pathname to a path.
 */
function matchPath(pathname, options = {}) {
  if (typeof options === "string" || Array.isArray(options)) {
    options = { path: options };
  }

  const { path, exact = false, strict = false, sensitive = false } = options;

  const paths = [].concat(path);

  return paths.reduce((matched, path) => {
    if (!path && path !== "") return null;
    if (matched) return matched;

    const { regexp, keys } = compilePath(path, {
      end: exact,
      strict,
      sensitive
    });
    const match = regexp.exec(pathname);

    if (!match) return null;

    const [url, ...values] = match;
    const isExact = pathname === url;

    if (exact && !isExact) return null;

    return {
      path, // the path used to match
      url: path === "/" && url === "" ? "/" : url, // the matched portion of the URL
      isExact, // whether or not we matched exactly
      params: keys.reduce((memo, key, index) => {
        memo[key.name] = values[index];
        return memo;
      }, {})
    };
  }, null);
}

export default matchPath;

historyContext

创建historyContext。

import createNamedContext from "./createNameContext";

const historyContext = /*#__PURE__*/ createNamedContext("Router-History");
export default historyContext;

routerContext

创建routerContext。这里源码的写法有冗余了。

// TODO: Replace with React.createContext once we can assume React 16+
import createContext from "mini-create-react-context";

const createNamedContext = name => {
  const context = createContext();
  context.displayName = name;

  return context;
};

const context = /*#__PURE__*/ createNamedContext("Router");
export default context;

Lifecycle

创建一个react组件,它是一个空组件,主要是为了在组件生命周期的各个阶段能够调用用户通过props传入的回调函数。

import React from "react";

class Lifecycle extends React.Component {
  componentDidMount() {
    if (this.props.onMount) this.props.onMount.call(this, this);
  }

  componentDidUpdate(prevProps) {
    if (this.props.onUpdate) this.props.onUpdate.call(this, this, prevProps);
  }

  componentWillUnmount() {
    if (this.props.onUnmount) this.props.onUnmount.call(this, this);
  }

  render() {
    return null;
  }
}

export default Lifecycle;

Router

<Router>是我们很常用的组件,有了前面的知识铺垫,它的实现就非常简单了。

组件内部有一个location的state,如果不是静态路由,通过history.listen方法监听history的变化。这里的history就是我们前面介绍的history库生成的history,它可以采用browserHistory、hashHistory、memoryHistory,history库对这三种history做了一致的接口封装。history如果发生改变,就是调用this.setState({ location }),组件重新渲染,RouterContext.Provider、HistoryContext.Provider的值更新,它们下面的跨级组件也能感知到,从而获得最新的参数和方法。

import React from "react";
import PropTypes from "prop-types";
import warning from "tiny-warning";

import HistoryContext from "./HistoryContext.js";
import RouterContext from "./RouterContext.js";

/**
 * The public API for putting history on context.
 */
class Router extends React.Component {
  static computeRootMatch(pathname) {
    return { path: "/", url: "/", params: {}, isExact: pathname === "/" };
  }

  constructor(props) {
    super(props);

    this.state = {
      location: props.history.location
    };

    this._isMounted = false;
    this._pendingLocation = null;

    if (!props.staticContext) {
      this.unlisten = props.history.listen(location => {
        if (this._isMounted) {
          this.setState({ location });
        } else {
          this._pendingLocation = location;
        }
      });
    }
  }

  componentDidMount() {
    this._isMounted = true;

    if (this._pendingLocation) {
      this.setState({ location: this._pendingLocation });
    }
  }

  componentWillUnmount() {
    if (this.unlisten) this.unlisten();
  }

  render() {
    return (
      <RouterContext.Provider
        value={{
          history: this.props.history,
          location: this.state.location,
          match: Router.computeRootMatch(this.state.location.pathname),
          staticContext: this.props.staticContext
        }}
      >
        <HistoryContext.Provider
          children={this.props.children || null}
          value={this.props.history}
        />
      </RouterContext.Provider>
    );
  }
}

export default Router;

Route

使用RouterContext.Consumer可以感知到上层RouterContext.Provider值的变动,从而自动计算match,根据match的结果渲染匹配的业务组件(使用props传入children, component, render方法之一)。

如果有computedMatch属性说明在<Switch>组件中已经计算了match,可以直接使用。Switch组件我们后面会介绍。

import React from "react";
import { isValidElementType } from "react-is";
import PropTypes from "prop-types";
import invariant from "tiny-invariant";
import warning from "tiny-warning";

import RouterContext from "./RouterContext.js";
import matchPath from "./matchPath.js";

function isEmptyChildren(children) {
  return React.Children.count(children) === 0;
}

function evalChildrenDev(children, props, path) {
  const value = children(props);

  warning(
    value !== undefined,
    "You returned `undefined` from the `children` function of " +
      `<Route${path ? ` path="${path}"` : ""}>, but you ` +
      "should have returned a React element or `null`"
  );

  return value || null;
}

/**
 * The public API for matching a single path and rendering.
 */
class Route extends React.Component {
  render() {
    return (
      <RouterContext.Consumer>
        {context => {
          invariant(context, "You should not use <Route> outside a <Router>");

          const location = this.props.location || context.location;
          const match = this.props.computedMatch
            ? this.props.computedMatch // <Switch> already computed the match for us
            : this.props.path
            ? matchPath(location.pathname, this.props)
            : context.match;

          const props = { ...context, location, match };

          let { children, component, render } = this.props;

          // Preact uses an empty array as children by
          // default, so use null if that's the case.
          if (Array.isArray(children) && children.length === 0) {
            children = null;
          }

          return (
            <RouterContext.Provider value={props}>
              {props.match
                ? children
                  ? typeof children === "function"
                    ? __DEV__
                      ? evalChildrenDev(children, props, this.props.path)
                      : children(props)
                    : children
                  : component
                  ? React.createElement(component, props)
                  : render
                  ? render(props)
                  : null
                : typeof children === "function"
                ? __DEV__
                  ? evalChildrenDev(children, props, this.props.path)
                  : children(props)
                : null}
            </RouterContext.Provider>
          );
        }}
      </RouterContext.Consumer>
    );
  }
}

export default Route;

Redirect

重定向组件根据传入的push属性可以决定使用history.push还是history.replace进行重定向,根据传入computedMatch, to可以计算出重定向的location。如果在静态组件中,会直接执行重定向。如果不是,采用使用空组件Lifecycle,在组件挂载阶段重定向,在onUpdate中判断重定向是否完成。

import React from "react";
import PropTypes from "prop-types";
import { createLocation, locationsAreEqual } from "history";
import invariant from "tiny-invariant";

import Lifecycle from "./Lifecycle.js";
import RouterContext from "./RouterContext.js";
import generatePath from "./generatePath.js";

/**
 * The public API for navigating programmatically with a component.
 */
function Redirect({ computedMatch, to, push = false }) {
  return (
    <RouterContext.Consumer>
      {context => {
        invariant(context, "You should not use <Redirect> outside a <Router>");

        const { history, staticContext } = context;

        const method = push ? history.push : history.replace;
        const location = createLocation(
          computedMatch
            ? typeof to === "string"
              ? generatePath(to, computedMatch.params)
              : {
                  ...to,
                  pathname: generatePath(to.pathname, computedMatch.params)
                }
            : to
        );

        // When rendering in a static context,
        // set the new location immediately.
        if (staticContext) {
          method(location);
          return null;
        }

        return (
          <Lifecycle
            onMount={() => {
              method(location);
            }}
            onUpdate={(self, prevProps) => {
              const prevLocation = createLocation(prevProps.to);
              if (
                !locationsAreEqual(prevLocation, {
                  ...location,
                  key: prevLocation.key
                })
              ) {
                method(location);
              }
            }}
            to={to}
          />
        );
      }}
    </RouterContext.Consumer>
  );
}

export default Redirect;

Switch

被Switch组件包裹的组件只会渲染其中第一个路由匹配成功的组件。

主要通过React.Children.forEach(this.props.children, child => {}),遍历出第一个匹配的路由及组件,并通过React.cloneElement返回这个组件。

import React from "react";
import PropTypes from "prop-types";
import invariant from "tiny-invariant";
import warning from "tiny-warning";

import RouterContext from "./RouterContext.js";
import matchPath from "./matchPath.js";

/**
 * The public API for rendering the first <Route> that matches.
 */
class Switch extends React.Component {
  render() {
    return (
      <RouterContext.Consumer>
        {context => {
          invariant(context, "You should not use <Switch> outside a <Router>");

          const location = this.props.location || context.location;

          let element, match;

          // We use React.Children.forEach instead of React.Children.toArray().find()
          // here because toArray adds keys to all child elements and we do not want
          // to trigger an unmount/remount for two <Route>s that render the same
          // component at different URLs.
          React.Children.forEach(this.props.children, child => {
            if (match == null && React.isValidElement(child)) {
              element = child;

              const path = child.props.path || child.props.from;

              match = path
                ? matchPath(location.pathname, { ...child.props, path })
                : context.match;
            }
          });

          return match
            ? React.cloneElement(element, { location, computedMatch: match })
            : null;
        }}
      </RouterContext.Consumer>
    );
  }
}

export default Switch;

StaticRouter

静态路由组件自己实现了一个简单的history,没有监听history变化的概念,也不需要go、goBack、goForward、listen、block方法。

import React from "react";
import PropTypes from "prop-types";
import { createLocation, createPath } from "history";
import invariant from "tiny-invariant";
import warning from "tiny-warning";

import Router from "./Router.js";

function addLeadingSlash(path) {
  return path.charAt(0) === "/" ? path : "/" + path;
}

function addBasename(basename, location) {
  if (!basename) return location;

  return {
    ...location,
    pathname: addLeadingSlash(basename) + location.pathname
  };
}

function stripBasename(basename, location) {
  if (!basename) return location;

  const base = addLeadingSlash(basename);

  if (location.pathname.indexOf(base) !== 0) return location;

  return {
    ...location,
    pathname: location.pathname.substr(base.length)
  };
}

function createURL(location) {
  return typeof location === "string" ? location : createPath(location);
}

function staticHandler(methodName) {
  return () => {
    invariant(false, "You cannot %s with <StaticRouter>", methodName);
  };
}

function noop() {}

/**
 * The public top-level API for a "static" <Router>, so-called because it
 * can't actually change the current location. Instead, it just records
 * location changes in a context object. Useful mainly in testing and
 * server-rendering scenarios.
 */
class StaticRouter extends React.Component {
  navigateTo(location, action) {
    const { basename = "", context = {} } = this.props;
    context.action = action;
    context.location = addBasename(basename, createLocation(location));
    context.url = createURL(context.location);
  }

  handlePush = location => this.navigateTo(location, "PUSH");
  handleReplace = location => this.navigateTo(location, "REPLACE");
  handleListen = () => noop;
  handleBlock = () => noop;

  render() {
    const { basename = "", context = {}, location = "/", ...rest } = this.props;

    const history = {
      createHref: path => addLeadingSlash(basename + createURL(path)),
      action: "POP",
      location: stripBasename(basename, createLocation(location)),
      push: this.handlePush,
      replace: this.handleReplace,
      go: staticHandler("go"),
      goBack: staticHandler("goBack"),
      goForward: staticHandler("goForward"),
      listen: this.handleListen,
      block: this.handleBlock
    };

    return <Router {...rest} history={history} staticContext={context} />;
  }
}

export default StaticRouter;

MemoryRouter

MemoryRouter的history指定使用了createMemoryHistory,内部逻辑就是Router的逻辑。

import React from "react";
import PropTypes from "prop-types";
import { createMemoryHistory as createHistory } from "history";
import warning from "tiny-warning";

import Router from "./Router.js";

/**
 * The public API for a <Router> that stores location in memory.
 */
class MemoryRouter extends React.Component {
  history = createHistory(this.props);

  render() {
    return <Router history={this.history} children={this.props.children} />;
  }
}

export default MemoryRouter;

Prompt

Prompt组件当Router不是staticRouter且when属性为true时才生效。

调用的是前面介绍的history.block()方法。

import React from "react";
import PropTypes from "prop-types";
import invariant from "tiny-invariant";

import Lifecycle from "./Lifecycle.js";
import RouterContext from "./RouterContext.js";

/**
 * The public API for prompting the user before navigating away from a screen.
 */
function Prompt({ message, when = true }) {
  return (
    <RouterContext.Consumer>
      {context => {
        invariant(context, "You should not use <Prompt> outside a <Router>");

        if (!when || context.staticContext) return null;

        const method = context.history.block;

        return (
          <Lifecycle
            onMount={self => {
              self.release = method(message);
            }}
            onUpdate={(self, prevProps) => {
              if (prevProps.message !== message) {
                self.release();
                self.release = method(message);
              }
            }}
            onUnmount={self => {
              self.release();
            }}
            message={message}
          />
        );
      }}
    </RouterContext.Consumer>
  );
}

export default Prompt;

withRouter

由于从RouterContext.Consumer的context中可以很方便取到路由参数,所以withRouter就很容易实现了。只需要使用高阶组件的形式,接收被包裹组件作为参数,将context作为参数传入被包裹组件组件,再返回这个组件即可。

component还暴露了wrappedComponentRef属性,可以转发ref。

import React from "react";
import PropTypes from "prop-types";
import hoistStatics from "hoist-non-react-statics";
import invariant from "tiny-invariant";

import RouterContext from "./RouterContext.js";

/**
 * A public higher-order component to access the imperative API
 */
function withRouter(Component) {
  const displayName = `withRouter(${Component.displayName || Component.name})`;
  const C = props => {
    const { wrappedComponentRef, ...remainingProps } = props;

    return (
      <RouterContext.Consumer>
        {context => {
          invariant(
            context,
            `You should not use <${displayName} /> outside a <Router>`
          );
          return (
            <Component
              {...remainingProps}
              {...context}
              ref={wrappedComponentRef}
            />
          );
        }}
      </RouterContext.Consumer>
    );
  };

  C.displayName = displayName;
  C.WrappedComponent = Component;

  return hoistStatics(C, Component);
}

export default withRouter;

hooks

react-router还使用了useContext hook使用react hook的方式来提供一些路由参数和history。

import React from "react";
import invariant from "tiny-invariant";

import Context from "./RouterContext.js";
import HistoryContext from "./HistoryContext.js";
import matchPath from "./matchPath.js";

const useContext = React.useContext;

export function useHistory() {

  return useContext(HistoryContext);
}

export function useLocation() {

  return useContext(Context).location;
}

export function useParams() {

  const match = useContext(Context).match;
  return match ? match.params : {};
}

export function useRouteMatch(path) {

  const location = useLocation();
  const match = useContext(Context).match;

  return path ? matchPath(location.pathname, path) : match;
}

react-router-dom

react-router中还包括react-router-dom库的实现,来提供dom相关的路由操作。

我们在react工程中一般使用的就是react-router-dom库,它的底层是前面介绍的react-router。

BrowserRouter

我们在项目中使用HTML5 history控制路由,可以直接使用react-router-dom中的BrowserRouter。

import React from "react";
import { Router } from "react-router";
import { createBrowserHistory as createHistory } from "history";
import PropTypes from "prop-types";
import warning from "tiny-warning";

/**
 * The public API for a <Router> that uses HTML5 history.
 */
class BrowserRouter extends React.Component {
  history = createHistory(this.props);

  render() {
    return <Router history={this.history} children={this.props.children} />;
  }
}

export default BrowserRouter;

HashRouter

我们在项目中使用window.location.hash控制路由,可以直接使用react-router-dom中的HashRouter。

import React from "react";
import { Router } from "react-router";
import { createHashHistory as createHistory } from "history";
import PropTypes from "prop-types";
import warning from "tiny-warning";

/**
 * The public API for a <Router> that uses window.location.hash.
 */
class HashRouter extends React.Component {
  history = createHistory(this.props);

  render() {
    return <Router history={this.history} children={this.props.children} />;
  }
}

export default HashRouter;

Link

<Link>组件是react-router中常见的路由跳转组件。它使用的是html的a标签,为其绑定了点击事件。用户点击时,既可以执行用户自定义的onClick回调函数,也会执行navigate -> method(location),method可以根据用户传入的replace参数决定是使用history.replace还是history.push,同时点击事件也会阻止事件冒泡以免产生副作用。

Link还暴露了forwardedRef属性,可以转发ref。

import React from "react";
import { __RouterContext as RouterContext } from "react-router";
import PropTypes from "prop-types";
import invariant from "tiny-invariant";
import {
  resolveToLocation,
  normalizeToLocation
} from "./utils/locationUtils.js";

// React 15 compat
const forwardRefShim = C => C;
let { forwardRef } = React;
if (typeof forwardRef === "undefined") {
  forwardRef = forwardRefShim;
}

function isModifiedEvent(event) {
  return !!(event.metaKey || event.altKey || event.ctrlKey || event.shiftKey);
}

const LinkAnchor = forwardRef(
  (
    {
      innerRef, // TODO: deprecate
      navigate,
      onClick,
      ...rest
    },
    forwardedRef
  ) => {
    const { target } = rest;

    let props = {
      ...rest,
      onClick: event => {
        try {
          if (onClick) onClick(event);
        } catch (ex) {
          event.preventDefault();
          throw ex;
        }

        if (
          !event.defaultPrevented && // onClick prevented default
          event.button === 0 && // ignore everything but left clicks
          (!target || target === "_self") && // let browser handle "target=_blank" etc.
          !isModifiedEvent(event) // ignore clicks with modifier keys
        ) {
          event.preventDefault();
          navigate();
        }
      }
    };

    // React 15 compat
    if (forwardRefShim !== forwardRef) {
      props.ref = forwardedRef || innerRef;
    } else {
      props.ref = innerRef;
    }

    /* eslint-disable-next-line jsx-a11y/anchor-has-content */
    return <a {...props} />;
  }
);

if (__DEV__) {
  LinkAnchor.displayName = "LinkAnchor";
}

/**
 * The public API for rendering a history-aware <a>.
 */
const Link = forwardRef(
  (
    {
      component = LinkAnchor,
      replace,
      to,
      innerRef, // TODO: deprecate
      ...rest
    },
    forwardedRef
  ) => {
    return (
      <RouterContext.Consumer>
        {context => {
          invariant(context, "You should not use <Link> outside a <Router>");

          const { history } = context;

          const location = normalizeToLocation(
            resolveToLocation(to, context.location),
            context.location
          );

          const href = location ? history.createHref(location) : "";
          const props = {
            ...rest,
            href,
            navigate() {
              const location = resolveToLocation(to, context.location);
              const method = replace ? history.replace : history.push;

              method(location);
            }
          };

          // React 15 compat
          if (forwardRefShim !== forwardRef) {
            props.ref = forwardedRef || innerRef;
          } else {
            props.innerRef = innerRef;
          }

          return React.createElement(component, props);
        }}
      </RouterContext.Consumer>
    );
  }
);

export default Link;

NavLink

NavLink是基于Link的,它主要功能是可以自定义设置一些activeStyle、className,从而改变Link的样式。

import React from "react";
import { __RouterContext as RouterContext, matchPath } from "react-router";
import PropTypes from "prop-types";
import invariant from "tiny-invariant";
import Link from "./Link.js";
import {
  resolveToLocation,
  normalizeToLocation
} from "./utils/locationUtils.js";

// React 15 compat
const forwardRefShim = C => C;
let { forwardRef } = React;
if (typeof forwardRef === "undefined") {
  forwardRef = forwardRefShim;
}

function joinClassnames(...classnames) {
  return classnames.filter(i => i).join(" ");
}

/**
 * A <Link> wrapper that knows if it's "active" or not.
 */
const NavLink = forwardRef(
  (
    {
      "aria-current": ariaCurrent = "page",
      activeClassName = "active",
      activeStyle,
      className: classNameProp,
      exact,
      isActive: isActiveProp,
      location: locationProp,
      sensitive,
      strict,
      style: styleProp,
      to,
      innerRef, // TODO: deprecate
      ...rest
    },
    forwardedRef
  ) => {
    return (
      <RouterContext.Consumer>
        {context => {
          invariant(context, "You should not use <NavLink> outside a <Router>");

          const currentLocation = locationProp || context.location;
          const toLocation = normalizeToLocation(
            resolveToLocation(to, currentLocation),
            currentLocation
          );
          const { pathname: path } = toLocation;
          // Regex taken from: https://github.com/pillarjs/path-to-regexp/blob/master/index.js#L202
          const escapedPath =
            path && path.replace(/([.+*?=^!:${}()[\]|/\\])/g, "\\$1");

          const match = escapedPath
            ? matchPath(currentLocation.pathname, {
                path: escapedPath,
                exact,
                sensitive,
                strict
              })
            : null;
          const isActive = !!(isActiveProp
            ? isActiveProp(match, currentLocation)
            : match);

          const className = isActive
            ? joinClassnames(classNameProp, activeClassName)
            : classNameProp;
          const style = isActive ? { ...styleProp, ...activeStyle } : styleProp;

          const props = {
            "aria-current": (isActive && ariaCurrent) || null,
            className,
            style,
            to: toLocation,
            ...rest
          };

          // React 15 compat
          if (forwardRefShim !== forwardRef) {
            props.ref = forwardedRef || innerRef;
          } else {
            props.innerRef = innerRef;
          }

          return <Link {...props} />;
        }}
      </RouterContext.Consumer>
    );
  }
);

export default NavLink;

react-router-config

react-router-config是为了方便我们使用类似下面的配置来编写react-router

const routes = [
  {
    component: Root,
    routes: [
      {
        path: "/",
        exact: true,
        component: Home
      },
      {
        path: "/child/:id",
        component: Child,
        routes: [
          {
            path: "/child/:id/grand-child",
            component: GrandChild
          }
        ]
      }
    ]
  }
];

它只有两个api,matchRoutes和renderRoutes。

matchRoutes

import { matchPath, Router } from "react-router";

function matchRoutes(routes, pathname, /*not public API*/ branch = []) {
  routes.some(route => {
    const match = route.path
      ? matchPath(pathname, route)
      : branch.length
      ? branch[branch.length - 1].match // use parent match
      : Router.computeRootMatch(pathname); // use default "root" match

    if (match) {
      branch.push({ route, match });

      if (route.routes) {
        matchRoutes(route.routes, pathname, branch);
      }
    }

    return match;
  });

  return branch;
}

export default matchRoutes;

renderRoutes

renderRoutes在组件中使用,可以根据前面的路由配置渲染相应的组件。

import React from "react";
import { Switch, Route } from "react-router";

function renderRoutes(routes, extraProps = {}, switchProps = {}) {
  return routes ? (
    <Switch {...switchProps}>
      {routes.map((route, i) => (
        <Route
          key={route.key || i}
          path={route.path}
          exact={route.exact}
          strict={route.strict}
          render={props =>
            route.render ? (
              route.render({ ...props, ...extraProps, route: route })
            ) : (
              <route.component {...props} {...extraProps} route={route} />
            )
          }
        />
      ))}
    </Switch>
  ) : null;
}

export default renderRoutes;

使用示例如下:

import { renderRoutes } from "react-router-config";
 
const routes = [
  {
    component: Root,
    routes: [
      {
        path: "/",
        exact: true,
        component: Home
      },
      {
        path: "/child/:id",
        component: Child,
        routes: [
          {
            path: "/child/:id/grand-child",
            component: GrandChild
          }
        ]
      }
    ]
  }
];
 
const Root = ({ route }) => (
  <div>
    <h1>Root</h1>
    {/* child routes won't render without this */}
    {renderRoutes(route.routes)}
  </div>
);
 
const Home = ({ route }) => (
  <div>
    <h2>Home</h2>
  </div>
);
 
const Child = ({ route }) => (
  <div>
    <h2>Child</h2>
    {/* child routes won't render without this */}
    {renderRoutes(route.routes, { someProp: "these extra props are optional" })}
  </div>
);
 
const GrandChild = ({ someProp }) => (
  <div>
    <h3>Grand Child</h3>
    <div>{someProp}</div>
  </div>
);
 
ReactDOM.render(
  <BrowserRouter>
    {/* kick it all off with the root route */}
    {renderRoutes(routes)}
  </BrowserRouter>,
  document.getElementById("root")
);

react-router-native

react-router里最后一个包是react-router-native,因为没有做过相关业务,就没有研究了。

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