Docker 平台基本使用方法

刘遄

本文档详细介绍 Docker 平台基本使用方法,希望能给大家带来帮助。

开启动网络转发功能,默认会自动开启

[root@Docker ]# vim /etc/sysctl.conf #插入以下内容
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
[root@Docker ]# sysctl -p #生效
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
[root@Docker ]# cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
1

例 1:运行一个 container 并加载镜像 centos,运行起来这个实例后,在实例中执行 /bin/bash 命令

docker 常用参数:
run 运行
-i 以交互模式运行容器,通常与 -t 同时使用
-t 为容器重新分配一个伪输入终端,通常与 -i 同时使用

[root@Docker ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED SIZE
centos latest 470671670cac 4 months ago 237MB
[root@Docker ~]# docker run -it centos:latest /bin/bash #启动一个实例,秒级响应

[root@efb4af688330 /]# ls
bin etc lib lost+found mnt proc run srv tmp var
dev home lib64 media opt root sbin sys usr

[root@efb4af688330 /]# cat /etc/redhat-release
CentOS Linux release 8.1.1911 (Core)

安装软件

[root@0a297ff99af8 /]# yum install -y httpd
Failed to set locale, defaulting to C.UTF-8
CentOS-8 - AppStream 5.7 MB/s | 7.0 MB 00:01
CentOS-8 - Base 2.2 MB/s | 2.2 MB 00:00
CentOS-8 - Extras 8.1 kB/s | 5.9 kB 00:00

Dependencies resolved.

Package Arch Version Repo Size

Installing:
httpd x86_64 2.4.37-16.module_el8.1.0+256+ae790463 AppStream 1.7 M
Installing dependencies:
apr x86_64 1.6.3-9.el8 AppStream 125 k
apr-util x86_64 1.6.1-6.el8 AppStream 105 k
centos-logos-httpd

         noarch 80.5-2.el8                            AppStream  24 k

httpd-filesystem

         noarch 2.4.37-16.module_el8.1.0+256+ae790463 AppStream  35 k

httpd-tools x86_64 2.4.37-16.module_el8.1.0+256+ae790463 AppStream 103 k
mod_http2 x86_64 1.11.3-3.module_el8.1.0+213+acce2796 AppStream 158 k
brotli x86_64 1.0.6-1.el8 BaseOS 323 k
mailcap noarch 2.1.48-3.el8 BaseOS 39 k
Installing weak dependencies:
apr-util-bdb

         x86_64 1.6.1-6.el8                           AppStream  25 k

apr-util-openssl

         x86_64 1.6.1-6.el8                           AppStream  27 k

Enabling module streams:
httpd 2.4

Transaction Summary

Install 11 Packages

Total download size: 2.6 M
Installed size: 8.1 M
Downloading Packages:
(1/11): apr-util-bdb-1.6.1-6.el8.x86_64.r 142 kB/s | 25 kB 00:00 A
(2/11): apr-1.6.3-9.el8.x86_64.rpm 588 kB/s | 125 kB 00:00
(3/11): apr-util-openssl-1.6.1-6.el8.x86_ 346 kB/s | 27 kB 00:00
(4/11): apr-util-1.6.1-6.el8.x86_64.rpm 340 kB/s | 105 kB 00:00
(5/11): centos-logos-httpd-80.5-2.el8.noa 187 kB/s | 24 kB 00:00
(6/11): httpd-filesystem-2.4.37-16.module 398 kB/s | 35 kB 00:00
(7/11): mod_http2-1.11.3-3.module_el8.1.0 992 kB/s | 158 kB 00:00
(8/11): httpd-2.4.37-16.module_el8.1.0+25 4.8 MB/s | 1.7 MB 00:00
(9/11): httpd-tools-2.4.37-16.module_el8. 387 kB/s | 103 kB 00:00
(10/11): mailcap-2.1.48-3.el8.noarch.rpm 289 kB/s | 39 kB 00:00

(11/11): brotli-1.0.6-1.el8.x86_64.rpm 826 kB/s | 323 kB 00:00

Total 290 kB/s | 2.6 MB 00:09
warning: /var/cache/dnf/AppStream-02e86d1c976ab532/packages/apr-1.6.3-9.el8.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 RSA/SHA256 Signature, key ID 8483c65d: NOKEY
CentOS-8 - AppStream 1.6 MB/s | 1.6 kB 00:00
Importing GPG key 0x8483C65D:
Userid : "CentOS (CentOS Official Signing Key) "
Fingerprint: 99DB 70FA E1D7 CE22 7FB6 4882 05B5 55B3 8483 C65D
From : /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-centosofficial
Key imported successfully
Running transaction check
Transaction check succeeded.
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded.
Running transaction
Preparing : 1/1
Installing : apr-1.6.3-9.el8.x86_64 1/11
Running scriptlet: apr-1.6.3-9.el8.x86_64 1/11
Installing : apr-util-bdb-1.6.1-6.el8.x86_64 2/11
Installing : apr-util-openssl-1.6.1-6.el8.x86_64 3/11
Installing : apr-util-1.6.1-6.el8.x86_64 4/11
Running scriptlet: apr-util-1.6.1-6.el8.x86_64 4/11
Installing : httpd-tools-2.4.37-16.module_el8.1.0+256+ae7 5/11
Installing : mailcap-2.1.48-3.el8.noarch 6/11
Installing : brotli-1.0.6-1.el8.x86_64 7/11
Running scriptlet: httpd-filesystem-2.4.37-16.module_el8.1.0+25 8/11
Installing : httpd-filesystem-2.4.37-16.module_el8.1.0+25 8/11
Installing : centos-logos-httpd-80.5-2.el8.noarch 9/11
Installing : mod_http2-1.11.3-3.module_el8.1.0+213+acce27 10/11
Installing : httpd-2.4.37-16.module_el8.1.0+256+ae790463. 11/11
Running scriptlet: httpd-2.4.37-16.module_el8.1.0+256+ae790463. 11/11
Verifying : apr-1.6.3-9.el8.x86_64 1/11
Verifying : apr-util-1.6.1-6.el8.x86_64 2/11
Verifying : apr-util-bdb-1.6.1-6.el8.x86_64 3/11
Verifying : apr-util-openssl-1.6.1-6.el8.x86_64 4/11
Verifying : centos-logos-httpd-80.5-2.el8.noarch 5/11
Verifying : httpd-2.4.37-16.module_el8.1.0+256+ae790463. 6/11
Verifying : httpd-filesystem-2.4.37-16.module_el8.1.0+25 7/11
Verifying : httpd-tools-2.4.37-16.module_el8.1.0+256+ae7 8/11
Verifying : mod_http2-1.11.3-3.module_el8.1.0+213+acce27 9/11
Verifying : brotli-1.0.6-1.el8.x86_64 10/11
Verifying : mailcap-2.1.48-3.el8.noarch 11/11

Installed:
httpd-2.4.37-16.module_el8.1.0+256+ae790463.x86_64
apr-util-bdb-1.6.1-6.el8.x86_64
apr-util-openssl-1.6.1-6.el8.x86_64
apr-1.6.3-9.el8.x86_64
apr-util-1.6.1-6.el8.x86_64
centos-logos-httpd-80.5-2.el8.noarch
httpd-filesystem-2.4.37-16.module_el8.1.0+256+ae790463.noarch
httpd-tools-2.4.37-16.module_el8.1.0+256+ae790463.x86_64
mod_http2-1.11.3-3.module_el8.1.0+213+acce2796.x86_64
brotli-1.0.6-1.el8.x86_64
mailcap-2.1.48-3.el8.noarch

Complete!

退出容器

[root@efb4af688330 /]# exit
exit
[root@Docker ~]#

例 2:在 container 中启动一个长久运行的进程,不断向 stdin 输出 hello world 模拟一个后台运行的服务

docker 常用参数:
-d 后台运行容器,并返回容器 ID
-c 后面跟待完成的命令

[root@Docker ~]# docker run -d centos:latest /bin/bash -c "while true;do echo hello world;sleep 1;done"
607752360adf7e9ebfdbae01d09b2fd9ed2f350ad2d87e3e868d63144b966104

容器的 ID

从一个容器中取日志,查看输出的内容

[root@Docker ~]# docker logs 607752360ad #容器的 ID 可以写全,也可以不写全,只要唯一就可以了
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
hello world
[root@Docker ~]#

查看正在运行的容器

[root@Docker ]# docker ps #列出所有运行中容器
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES
607752360adf centos:latest "/bin/bash -c 'while…" About a minute ago Up About a minute brave_fermi

也可以使用短 ID 或 docker 实例的名字查看日志输出

[root@Docker ~]# docker logs 607752360adf

[root@Docker ~]# docker logs brave_fermi

[root@Docker ~]# docker ps -a #-a 列出所有容器(包含沉睡/退出状态的容器)
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES
607752360adf centos:latest "/bin/bash -c 'while…" 4 minutes ago Up 4 minutes brave_fermi
0a297ff99af8 centos:latest "/bin/bash" 7 minutes ago Exited (1) 5 minutes ago ecstatic_yonath
efb4af688330 centos:latest "/bin/bash" 9 minutes ago Exited (0) 8 minutes ago epic_mcclintock

[root@Docker ~]# docker images #列出所有本地镜像
REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED SIZE
centos latest 470671670cac 4 months ago 237MB

例 3:杀死一个容器 比如:杀死一个正在后台运行的容器

查看要杀死容器的 ID

[root@Docker ~]# docker ps -a #-a 列出所有容器(包含沉睡/退出状态的容器);
杀死 ID 为 607752360adf 的容器
[root@Docker ~]# docker kill 607752360adf #杀死一个容器
607752360adf

查看结果

[root@Docker ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES

例 4:启动、停止、重启 container 容器实例

启动: run # 创建并运行 docker 实例

[root@Docker ]# docker run -d centos:latest /bin/bash -c "while true;do echo hello world;sleep 1;done"

查看容器

[root@Docker ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES
bea2aaa70725 centos:latest "/bin/bash -c 'while…" 4 seconds ago Up 3 seconds flamboyant_keller

关闭容器

[root@Docker ~]# docker stop bea2aaa70725
bea2aaa70725

查看

[root@Docker ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES
[root@Docker ~]# docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES
bea2aaa70725 centos:latest "/bin/bash -c 'while…" About a minute ago Exited (137) 35 seconds ago flamboyant_keller
607752360adf centos:latest "/bin/bash -c 'while…" 9 minutes ago Exited (137) 3 minutes ago brave_fermi
0a297ff99af8 centos:latest "/bin/bash" 12 minutes ago Exited (1) 10 minutes ago ecstatic_yonath
efb4af688330 centos:latest "/bin/bash" 15 minutes ago Exited (0) 13 minutes ago epic_mcclintock
[root@Docker ~]# docker start bea2aaa70725
bea2aaa70725
[root@Docker ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES
bea2aaa70725 centos:latest "/bin/bash -c 'while…" 2 minutes ago Up 31 seconds flamboyant_keller
[root@Docker ~]# docker restart bea2aaa70725
bea2aaa70725

删除指定 container : rm

[root@Docker ~]# docker rm bea2aaa70725
Error response from daemon: You cannot remove a running container bea2aaa707259a80c474e7d43c5648af0a5cfe16c4e50470fb6c5c84a0490d8b. Stop the container before attempting removal or force remove

解决:可以先把容器 1a63ddea6571 关闭,然后再删除或加-f 强制删除

[root@Docker ~]# docker rm -f bea2aaa70725
bea2aaa70725

总结

以上就是 Docker 平台基本使用方法,希望能给大家带来帮助。

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《Linux就该这么学》书籍作者,RHCA认证架构师,教育学(计算机专业硕士)。

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《Linux就该这么学》书籍作者,RHCA认证架构师,教育学(计算机专业硕士)。

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