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Prometheus 监控带用户名密码的 API (NGINX)采集配置

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这篇文章的主要目的是告诉大家如何配置 Prometheus,使得它可以从指定的 Web Api 接口采集指标数据。文章中用到的案例是 NGINX 的采集配置,从设定了用户名和密码的 NGINX 数据指标页中采集数据,因此这篇文章的副标题可能是 nginx 的 prometheus 采集配置或者prometheus 采集 basic auth 的 nginx

上图是配置完成后,在 Grafana 配置了模板的效果。

使用过 Prometheus 的朋友想必都知道如何配置 address:port 类服务,例如收集某个 Redis 的相关信息时,配置可以这么写:

  - job_name: 'redis'
    static_configs:
    - targets: ['11.22.33.58:6087']

注释:以上案例中假设 Redis Exporter 的 地址和端口是 11.22.33.58:6087。

这种是最简单,也是最为人熟知的办法。但是如果要监控指定的 Web API,可就不能这么写了。如果你没有看到这篇文章,你可能会在搜索引擎里面这么搜:

  • Prometheus 监控 Web
  • Prometheus scrape Web
  • Prometheus 监控接口
  • Prometheus 监控指定 API
  • Prometheus API 配置
  • Prometheus 域名 配置
  • Prometheus basic auth
  • Prometheus 接口 用户名 密码

但很不幸的是,搜不到什么有效信息(现在是 2021 年 03 月),能找到的基本上都是坑。

条件假设

假设我们现在需要从地址为 https://www.weishidong.com//s... 的接口收集相关的 Prometheus 监控指标,并且这个接口使用了 basic auth(假定用户名为 weishidong,密码为 0099887kk)进行基本的权限校验。

配置实践操作

按照之前见到的 Prometheus 配置填写的话,很有可能把配置写成这样:

  - job_name: 'web'
    static_configs:
    - targets: ['http://www.weishidong.com/status/format/prometheus']
    basic_auth:
      username: weishidong
      password: 0099887kk

保存配置文件并重启服务后你就会发现,这样是收集不到数据的,简直糟糕。

官方配置指南

刚才的操作真的是糟糕透了,遇到不懂的问题时,我们当然是去翻官方文档了->Prometheus Configuration。阅读时推荐自上而下,不过如果你比较着急,可以直接来到 采集配置 这个部分。官方给出的示例如下(内容太多,这里只保留跟本文相关的部分,建议大家去看原文):

# The job name assigned to scraped metrics by default.
job_name: <job_name>

# How frequently to scrape targets from this job.
[ scrape_interval: <duration> | default = <global_config.scrape_interval> ]

# Per-scrape timeout when scraping this job.
[ scrape_timeout: <duration> | default = <global_config.scrape_timeout> ]

# The HTTP resource path on which to fetch metrics from targets.
[ metrics_path: <path> | default = /metrics ]

# honor_labels controls how Prometheus handles conflicts between labels that are
# already present in scraped data and labels that Prometheus would attach
# server-side ("job" and "instance" labels, manually configured target
# labels, and labels generated by service discovery implementations).
#
# If honor_labels is set to "true", label conflicts are resolved by keeping label
# values from the scraped data and ignoring the conflicting server-side labels.
#
# If honor_labels is set to "false", label conflicts are resolved by renaming
# conflicting labels in the scraped data to "exported_<original-label>" (for
# example "exported_instance", "exported_job") and then attaching server-side
# labels.
#
# Setting honor_labels to "true" is useful for use cases such as federation and
# scraping the Pushgateway, where all labels specified in the target should be
# preserved.
#
# Note that any globally configured "external_labels" are unaffected by this
# setting. In communication with external systems, they are always applied only
# when a time series does not have a given label yet and are ignored otherwise.
[ honor_labels: <boolean> | default = false ]

# honor_timestamps controls whether Prometheus respects the timestamps present
# in scraped data.
#
# If honor_timestamps is set to "true", the timestamps of the metrics exposed
# by the target will be used.
#
# If honor_timestamps is set to "false", the timestamps of the metrics exposed
# by the target will be ignored.
[ honor_timestamps: <boolean> | default = true ]

# Configures the protocol scheme used for requests.
[ scheme: <scheme> | default = http ]

# Optional HTTP URL parameters.
params:
  [ <string>: [<string>, ...] ]

# Sets the `Authorization` header on every scrape request with the
# configured username and password.
# password and password_file are mutually exclusive.
basic_auth:
  [ username: <string> ]
  [ password: <secret> ]
  [ password_file: <string> ]

# Sets the `Authorization` header on every scrape request with
# the configured bearer token. It is mutually exclusive with `bearer_token_file`.
[ bearer_token: <secret> ]

# Sets the `Authorization` header on every scrape request with the bearer token
# read from the configured file. It is mutually exclusive with `bearer_token`.
[ bearer_token_file: <filename> ]

如果你认真看的话,应该会关注到几个关键信息: metrics_pathbasic_auth。其中,metrics_path 用于指定 HTTP 类指标信息采集时的路由地址,默认值是 /metrics;字段 basic_auth 则是用来进行权限验证的,而且密码这里可以指定密码文件,而不是直接填写明文(一般来说,指定密码文件的安全性稍高与明文)。

有效的配置

根据官方文档的指引,我们很快便可以推导出正确的配置写法:

- job_name: 'web'
    metrics_path: /status/format/prometheus
    static_configs:
    - targets: ['www.weishidong.com']
    basic_auth:
      username: weishidong
      password: 0099887kk

要注意的是,这里并不需要填写 http:// 字样,因为 Prometheus 默认的 Scheme 就是 http。如果地址的 Scheme 是 https 的话,按照文档指引,我们需要添加 scheme 字段,对应的配置为:

- job_name: 'web'
    metrics_path: /status/format/prometheus
    static_configs:
    - targets: ['www.weishidong.com']
    scheme: https
    basic_auth:
      username: weishidong
      password: 0099887kk

配置完成后,Prometheus 应该就能顺利的采集到数据了,配上 Grafana,就能够看到开篇给出的监控效果图。

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