k8s高可用集群部署(二进制,版本v1.18.18)上

lxjian01

1、资源准备

系统:CentOS 7.9.2009
LB VIP:192.168.31.88
主机名ip组件说明
k8s-master1192.168.219.161kube-apiserver,kube-controller-manager,kube-scheduler,etcd
k8s-node1192.168.219.162kubelet,kube-proxy,docker,etcd
k8s-node2192.168.219.163kubelet,kube-proxy,docker,etcd
k8s-master2192.168.219.164kube-apiserver,kube-controller-manager,kube-scheduler扩容master节点
load-balance1192.168.219.181Nginx L4Load Balancer(Master)
load-balance2192.168.219.182Nginx L4Load Balancer(Backup)

2、软件信息

软件版本
docker19.03.11
kubernetes1.18.18

3、docker部署

参考:https://segmentfault.com/a/11...
需要删除"exec-opts": ["native.cgroupdriver=systemd"],

cat > /etc/docker/daemon.json << EOF
{
  "log-driver": "json-file",
  "log-opts": {
    "max-size": "100m"
  },
  "storage-driver": "overlay2",
  "storage-opts": [
    "overlay2.override_kernel_check=true"
  ],
  "registry-mirrors": ["https://n0k07cz2.mirror.aliyuncs.com"]
}
EOF

4、系统配置(master、node节点)

参考:https://segmentfault.com/a/11...

5、部署Etcd集群

Etcd 是一个分布式键值存储系统,Kubernetes使用Etcd进行数据存储,所以先准备一个Etcd数据库,为解决Etcd单点故障,应采用集群方式部署,这里使用3台组建集群,可容忍1台机器故障,当然,你也可以使用5台组建集群,可容忍2台机器故障。

节点名称IP
etcd-1192.168.219.161
etcd-2192.168.219.162
etcd-3192.168.219.163
注:为了节省机器,这里与K8s节点机器复用。也可以独立于k8s集群之外部署,只要apiserver能连接到就行。

5.1、准备cfssl证书生成工具

cfssl是一个开源的证书管理工具,使用json文件生成证书,相比openssl更方便使用。
找任意一台服务器操作,这里用Master节点。

wget https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl_linux-amd64
wget https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssljson_linux-amd64
wget https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64
chmod +x cfssl_linux-amd64 cfssljson_linux-amd64 cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64
mv cfssl_linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/cfssl
mv cfssljson_linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/cfssljson
mv cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64 /usr/bin/cfssl-certinfo

5.2、生成Etcd证书

5.2.1、创建工作目录

mkdir -p ~/TLS/etcd
cd ~/TLS/etcd

5.2.2、自签证书颁发机构(CA)

自签CA:

cat > ca-config.json << EOF
{
  "signing": {
    "default": {
      "expiry": "87600h"
    },
    "profiles": {
      "www": {
         "expiry": "87600h",
         "usages": [
            "signing",
            "key encipherment",
            "server auth",
            "client auth"
        ]
      }
    }
  }
}
EOF
 
cat > ca-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "etcd CA",
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "Beijing",
            "ST": "Beijing"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

生成证书:

# 生成证书
cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca -

# 查看证书
ls *pem
ca-key.pem  ca.pem

5.2.3、使用自签CA签发Etcd HTTPS证书

创建证书申请文件:

cat > server-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "etcd",
    "hosts": [
    "192.168.219.161",
    "192.168.219.162",
    "192.168.219.163"
    ],
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "BeiJing",
            "ST": "BeiJing"
        }
    ]
}
EOF
注:上述文件hosts字段中IP为所有etcd节点的集群内部通信IP,一个都不能少!为了方便后期扩容可以多写几个预留的IP。

生成证书:

# 生成证书
cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=www server-csr.json | cfssljson -bare server

# 查看证书 
ls server*pem
server-key.pem  server.pem

5.3、从Github下载二进制文件

下载地址:https://github.com/etcd-io/et...

5.4、部署Etcd集群

以下在节点1上操作,为简化操作,待会将节点1生成的所有文件拷贝到节点2和节点3

5.4.1、创建工作目录并解压二进制包

mkdir /opt/etcd/{bin,cfg,ssl} -p
tar zxvf etcd-v3.4.9-linux-amd64.tar.gz
mv etcd-v3.4.9-linux-amd64/{etcd,etcdctl} /opt/etcd/bin/

5.4.2、创建etcd配置文件

cat > /opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf << EOF
#[Member]
ETCD_NAME="etcd-1"  # 修改此处,节点2改为etcd-2,节点3改为etcd-3
ETCD_DATA_DIR="/var/lib/etcd/default.etcd"
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.219.161:2380"  # 修改此处为当前服务器IP
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.219.161:2379"  # 修改此处为当前服务器IP
 
#[Clustering]
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.219.161:2380"  # 修改此处为当前服务器IP
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.219.161:2379"  # 修改此处为当前服务器IP
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER="etcd-1=https://192.168.219.161:2380,etcd-2=https://192.168.219.162:2380,etcd-3=https://192.168.219.163:2380"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN="etcd-cluster"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE="new"
EOF

说明 :

  • ETCD_NAME:节点名称,集群中唯一
  • ETCD_DATA_DIR:数据目录
  • ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS:集群通信监听地址
  • ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS:客户端访问监听地址
  • ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS:集群通告地址
  • ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS:客户端通告地址
  • ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER:集群节点地址
  • ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN:集群Token
  • ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE:加入集群的当前状态,new是新集群,existing表示加入已有集群

5.4.3、systemd管理etcd

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Etcd Server
After=network.target
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target
 
[Service]
Type=notify
EnvironmentFile=/opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf
ExecStart=/opt/etcd/bin/etcd \
--cert-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem \
--key-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem \
--peer-cert-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem \
--peer-key-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem \
--trusted-ca-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \
--peer-trusted-ca-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \
--logger=zap
Restart=on-failure
LimitNOFILE=65536
 
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

5.4.4、拷贝刚才生成的证书

把刚才生成的证书拷贝到配置文件中的路径

cp ~/TLS/etcd/ca*pem ~/TLS/etcd/server*pem /opt/etcd/ssl/

5.4.5、启动并设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start etcd
systemctl enable etcd

5.4.6、将上面节点1所有生成的文件拷贝到节点2和节点3

scp -r /opt/etcd/ root@192.168.219.162:/opt/
scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service root@192.168.219.162:/usr/lib/systemd/system/
scp -r /opt/etcd/ root@192.168.219.163:/opt/
scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service root@192.168.219.163:/usr/lib/systemd/system/

然后在节点2和节点3分别修改/opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf配置文件中的节点名称和当前服务器IP。
最后启动etcd并设置开机启动,同上。

5.5、查看集群状态

ETCDCTL_API=3 /opt/etcd/bin/etcdctl --cacert=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem --cert=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem --key=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem --endpoints="https://192.168.219.161:2379,https://192.168.219.162:2379,https://192.168.219.163:2379" endpoint health

输出:

https://192.168.219.161:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 8.154404ms
https://192.168.219.163:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 9.044117ms
https://192.168.219.162:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 10.000825ms
如果输出上面信息,就说明集群部署成功。如果有问题第一步先看日志:/var/log/message 或 journalctl -u etcd

6、部署Master Node

6.1、创建工作目录

mkdir -p ~/TLS/k8s
cd ~/TLS/k8s

6.2、生成kube-apiserver证书

6.2.1、自签证书颁发机构(CA)

自签CA:

cat > ca-config.json << EOF
{
  "signing": {
    "default": {
      "expiry": "87600h"
    },
    "profiles": {
      "kubernetes": {
         "expiry": "87600h",
         "usages": [
            "signing",
            "key encipherment",
            "server auth",
            "client auth"
        ]
      }
    }
  }
}
EOF

cat > ca-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "kubernetes",
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "Beijing",
            "ST": "Beijing",
            "O": "k8s",
            "OU": "System"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

生成证书:

# 生成证书
cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca -
 
# 查看证书
ls *pem
ca-key.pem  ca.pem

6.2.2、使用自签CA签发kube-apiserver HTTPS证书

创建证书申请文件:

cat > server-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "kubernetes",
    "hosts": [
      "10.0.0.1",
      "127.0.0.1",
      "192.168.219.161",
      "192.168.219.162",
      "192.168.219.163",
      "192.168.219.164",
      "192.168.219.181",
      "192.168.219.182",
      "192.168.219.188",
      "kubernetes",
      "kubernetes.default",
      "kubernetes.default.svc",
      "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster",
      "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local"
    ],
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "BeiJing",
            "ST": "BeiJing",
            "O": "k8s",
            "OU": "System"
        }
    ]
}
EOF
注:上述文件hosts字段中IP为所有Master/LB/VIP IP,一个都不能少!为了方便后期扩容可以多写几个预留的IP。

6.2.3、生成证书

# 生成证书
cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes server-csr.json | cfssljson -bare server

# 查看证书
ls server*pem
server-key.pem  server.pem

6.4、从Github下载二进制文件

6.4.1、下载

下载地址: https://github.com/kubernetes...

注:打开链接你会发现里面有很多包,下载一个server包就够了,包含了Master和Worker Node二进制文件。

6.4.2、解压二进制包

mkdir -p /opt/kubernetes/{bin,cfg,ssl,logs} 
tar zxvf kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz
cd kubernetes/server/bin
cp kube-apiserver kube-scheduler kube-controller-manager /opt/kubernetes/bin
cp kubectl /usr/bin/

6.4.3、部署kube-apiserver

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-apiserver.conf << EOF
KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--etcd-servers=https://192.168.219.161:2379,https://192.168.219.162:2379,https://192.168.219.163:2379 \\
--bind-address=192.168.219.161 \\
--secure-port=6443 \\
--advertise-address=192.168.219.161 \\
--allow-privileged=true \\
--service-cluster-ip-range=10.0.0.0/24 \\
--enable-admission-plugins=NamespaceLifecycle,LimitRanger,ServiceAccount,ResourceQuota,NodeRestriction \\
--authorization-mode=RBAC,Node \\
--enable-bootstrap-token-auth=true \\
--token-auth-file=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/token.csv \\
--service-node-port-range=30000-32767 \\
--kubelet-client-certificate=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server.pem \\
--kubelet-client-key=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server-key.pem \\
--tls-cert-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server.pem  \\
--tls-private-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server-key.pem \\
--client-ca-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
--service-account-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem \\
--etcd-cafile=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \\
--etcd-certfile=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem \\
--etcd-keyfile=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem \\
--audit-log-maxage=30 \\
--audit-log-maxbackup=3 \\
--audit-log-maxsize=100 \\
--audit-log-path=/opt/kubernetes/logs/k8s-audit.log"
EOF
注:上面两个\ \ 第一个是转义符,第二个是换行符,使用转义符是为了使用EOF保留换行符。

说明:

  • –logtostderr:启用日志
  • —v:日志等级
  • –log-dir:日志目录
  • –etcd-servers:etcd集群地址
  • –bind-address:监听地址
  • –secure-port:https安全端口
  • –advertise-address:集群通告地址
  • –allow-privileged:启用授权
  • –service-cluster-ip-range:Service虚拟IP地址段
  • –enable-admission-plugins:准入控制模块
  • –authorization-mode:认证授权,启用RBAC授权和节点自管理
  • –enable-bootstrap-token-auth:启用TLS bootstrap机制
  • –token-auth-file:bootstrap token文件
  • –service-node-port-range:Service nodeport类型默认分配端口范围
  • –kubelet-client-xxx:apiserver访问kubelet客户端证书
  • –tls-xxx-file:apiserver https证书
  • –etcd-xxxfile:连接Etcd集群证书
  • –audit-log-xxx:审计日志

6.4.4、拷贝刚才生成的证书

把刚才生成的证书拷贝到配置文件中的路径:

cp ~/TLS/k8s/ca*pem ~/TLS/k8s/server*pem /opt/kubernetes/ssl/

6.4.5、启用 TLS Bootstrapping 机制
TLS Bootstraping:Master apiserver启用TLS认证后,Node节点kubelet和kube-proxy要与kube-apiserver进行通信,必须使用CA签发的有效证书才可以,当Node节点很多时,这种客户端证书颁发需要大量工作,同样也会增加集群扩展复杂度。为了简化流程,Kubernetes引入了TLS bootstraping机制来自动颁发客户端证书,kubelet会以一个低权限用户自动向apiserver申请证书,kubelet的证书由apiserver动态签署。所以强烈建议在Node上使用这种方式,目前主要用于kubelet,kube-proxy还是由我们统一颁发一个证书。

TLS bootstraping 工作流程:
image.png

创建上述配置文件中token文件:

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/token.csv << EOF
c47ffb939f5ca36231d9e3121a252940,kubelet-bootstrap,10001,"system:node-bootstrapper"
EOF
格式:token,用户名,UID,用户组

token也可自行生成替换:

head -c 16 /dev/urandom | od -An -t x | tr -d ' '

6.5、systemd管理apiserver

6.5.1、创建service

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes API Server
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
 
[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-apiserver.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-apiserver \$KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
 
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

6.5.2、启动并设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-apiserver
systemctl enable kube-apiserver

6.5.3、授权kubelet-bootstrap用户允许请求证书

kubectl create clusterrolebinding kubelet-bootstrap \
--clusterrole=system:node-bootstrapper \
--user=kubelet-bootstrap

6.6、部署kube-controller-manager

6.6.1、创建配置文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-controller-manager.conf << EOF
KUBE_CONTROLLER_MANAGER_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--leader-elect=true \\
--master=127.0.0.1:8080 \\
--bind-address=127.0.0.1 \\
--allocate-node-cidrs=true \\
--cluster-cidr=10.244.0.0/16 \\
--service-cluster-ip-range=10.0.0.0/24 \\
--cluster-signing-cert-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
--cluster-signing-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem  \\
--root-ca-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
--service-account-private-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem \\
--experimental-cluster-signing-duration=87600h0m0s"
EOF

说明:

  • –master:通过本地非安全本地端口8080连接apiserver。
  • –leader-elect:当该组件启动多个时,自动选举(HA)
  • –cluster-signing-cert-file/–cluster-signing-key-file:自动为kubelet颁发证书的CA,与apiserver保持一致

6.6.2、systemd管理controller-manager

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-controller-manager.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Controller Manager
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
 
[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-controller-manager.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-controller-manager \$KUBE_CONTROLLER_MANAGER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
 
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

6.6.3、启动并设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-controller-manager
systemctl enable kube-controller-manager

6.7、部署kube-scheduler

6.7.1、创建配置文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-scheduler.conf << EOF
KUBE_SCHEDULER_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \
--v=2 \
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \
--leader-elect \
--master=127.0.0.1:8080 \
--bind-address=127.0.0.1"
EOF

说明:

  • –master:通过本地非安全本地端口8080连接apiserver。
  • –leader-elect:当该组件启动多个时,自动选举(HA)

6.7.2、systemd管理kube-scheduler

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-scheduler.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Scheduler
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
 
[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-scheduler.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-scheduler \$KUBE_SCHEDULER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
 
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

6.7.3、启动并设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-scheduler
systemctl enable kube-scheduler

6.8、查看集群状态

所有组件都已经启动成功,通过kubectl工具查看当前集群组件状态:

[root@localhost ~]# kubectl get cs
NAME                 STATUS    MESSAGE             ERROR
scheduler            Healthy   ok                  
controller-manager   Healthy   ok                  
etcd-2               Healthy   {"health":"true"}   
etcd-1               Healthy   {"health":"true"}   
etcd-0               Healthy   {"health":"true"}  

如上输出说明Master节点组件运行正常。

7、部署Worker Node

下面还是在Master Node上操作,即同时作为Worker Node

7.1、创建工作目录并拷贝二进制文件

在所有worker node创建工作目录:

mkdir -p /opt/kubernetes/{bin,cfg,ssl,logs} 

从master节点拷贝:

cd kubernetes/server/bin
cp kubelet kube-proxy /opt/kubernetes/bin   # 本地拷贝

7.2、部署kubelet

7.2.1、创建配置文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.conf << EOF
KUBELET_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--hostname-override=k8s-master1 \\
--network-plugin=cni \\
--kubeconfig=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.kubeconfig \\
--bootstrap-kubeconfig=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/bootstrap.kubeconfig \\
--config=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet-config.yml \\
--cert-dir=/opt/kubernetes/ssl \\
--pod-infra-container-image=lizhenliang/pause-amd64:3.0"
EOF

说明:

  • –hostname-override:显示名称,集群中唯一
  • –network-plugin:启用CNI
  • –kubeconfig:空路径,会自动生成,后面用于连接apiserver
  • –bootstrap-kubeconfig:首次启动向apiserver申请证书
  • –config:配置参数文件
  • –cert-dir:kubelet证书生成目录
  • –pod-infra-container-image:管理Pod网络容器的镜像

7.2.2、配置参数文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet-config.yml << EOF
kind: KubeletConfiguration
apiVersion: kubelet.config.k8s.io/v1beta1
address: 0.0.0.0
port: 10250
readOnlyPort: 10255
cgroupDriver: cgroupfs
clusterDNS:
- 10.0.0.2
clusterDomain: cluster.local 
failSwapOn: false
authentication:
  anonymous:
    enabled: false
  webhook:
    cacheTTL: 2m0s
    enabled: true
  x509:
    clientCAFile: /opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem 
authorization:
  mode: Webhook
  webhook:
    cacheAuthorizedTTL: 5m0s
    cacheUnauthorizedTTL: 30s
evictionHard:
  imagefs.available: 15%
  memory.available: 100Mi
  nodefs.available: 10%
  nodefs.inodesFree: 5%
maxOpenFiles: 1000000
maxPods: 110
EOF

7.2.3、生成bootstrap.kubeconfig文件

KUBE_APISERVER="https://192.168.219.161:6443" # apiserver IP:PORT
TOKEN="c47ffb939f5ca36231d9e3121a252940" # 与token.csv里保持一致
 
# 生成 kubelet bootstrap kubeconfig 配置文件
kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig
kubectl config set-credentials "kubelet-bootstrap" \
  --token=${TOKEN} \
  --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig
kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user="kubelet-bootstrap" \
  --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig
kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig

7.2.4、拷贝到配置文件路径

cp bootstrap.kubeconfig /opt/kubernetes/cfg

7.2.5、systemd管理kubelet

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kubelet.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Kubelet
After=docker.service
 
[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kubelet \$KUBELET_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
LimitNOFILE=65536
 
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

7.2.6、启动并设置开机启动:

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kubelet
systemctl enable kubelet

7.3、批准kubelet证书申请并加入集群

# 查看kubelet证书请求
kubectl get csr
NAME                                                   AGE    SIGNERNAME                                    REQUESTOR           CONDITION
node-csr-uCEGPOIiDdlLODKts8J658HrFq9CZ--K6M4G7bjhk8A   6m3s   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   kubelet-bootstrap   Pending
 
# 批准申请
kubectl certificate approve node-csr-uCEGPOIiDdlLODKts8J658HrFq9CZ--K6M4G7bjhk8A
 
# 查看节点
kubectl get node
NAME         STATUS     ROLES    AGE   VERSION
k8s-master1   NotReady   <none>   7s    v1.18.18
注:由于网络插件还没有部署,节点会没有准备就绪 NotReady

7.4、部署kube-proxy

7.4.1、创建配置文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy.conf << EOF
KUBE_PROXY_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--config=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy-config.yml"
EOF

7.4.2、配置参数文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy-config.yml << EOF
kind: KubeProxyConfiguration
apiVersion: kubeproxy.config.k8s.io/v1alpha1
bindAddress: 0.0.0.0
metricsBindAddress: 0.0.0.0:10249
clientConnection:
  kubeconfig: /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy.kubeconfig
hostnameOverride: k8s-master1
clusterCIDR: 10.0.0.0/24
EOF

7.4.3、生成kube-proxy.kubeconfig文件

切换工作目录:

cd ~/TLS/k8s

创建kube-proxy证书请求文件:

cat > kube-proxy-csr.json << EOF
{
  "CN": "system:kube-proxy",
  "hosts": [],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "L": "BeiJing",
      "ST": "BeiJing",
      "O": "k8s",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

生成证书:

# 生成证书
cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kube-proxy-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-proxy

# 查看证书
ls kube-proxy*pem
kube-proxy-key.pem  kube-proxy.pem

生成kubeconfig文件:

KUBE_APISERVER="https://192.168.219.161:6443"
 
kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig
kubectl config set-credentials kube-proxy \
  --client-certificate=./kube-proxy.pem \
  --client-key=./kube-proxy-key.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig
kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user=kube-proxy \
  --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig
kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig

拷贝到配置文件指定路径:

cp kube-proxy.kubeconfig /opt/kubernetes/cfg/

7.4.4、systemd管理kube-proxy

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-proxy.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Proxy
After=network.target
 
[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-proxy \$KUBE_PROXY_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
LimitNOFILE=65536
 
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

7.4.5、启动并设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-proxy
systemctl enable kube-proxy

7.5、部署CNI网络

7.5.1、先准备好CNI二进制文件

下载地址:https://github.com/containern...

7.5.2、解压二进制包并移动到默认工作目录

mkdir -p /opt/cni/bin
tar zxvf cni-plugins-linux-amd64-v0.8.6.tgz -C /opt/cni/bin

7.5.3、部署CNI网络

# 下载kube-flannel.yml
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/master/Documentation/kube-flannel.yml

# 默认镜像地址无法访问,修改为docker hub镜像仓库
sed -i -r "s#quay.io/coreos/flannel:.*-amd64#lizhenliang/flannel:v0.12.0-amd64#g" kube-flannel.yml

# 创建flannel网络
kubectl apply -f kube-flannel.yml

# 查看pod
kubectl get pods -n kube-system
NAME                          READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-2pc95   1/1     Running   0          72s

# 查看node
kubectl get node
NAME         STATUS   ROLES    AGE   VERSION
k8s-master1   Ready    <none>   41m   v1.18.18

7.6、授权apiserver访问kubelet

cat > apiserver-to-kubelet-rbac.yaml << EOF
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRole
metadata:
  annotations:
    rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate: "true"
  labels:
    kubernetes.io/bootstrapping: rbac-defaults
  name: system:kube-apiserver-to-kubelet
rules:
  - apiGroups:
      - ""
    resources:
      - nodes/proxy
      - nodes/stats
      - nodes/log
      - nodes/spec
      - nodes/metrics
      - pods/log
    verbs:
      - "*"
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: system:kube-apiserver
  namespace: ""
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: system:kube-apiserver-to-kubelet
subjects:
  - apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
    kind: User
    name: kubernetes
EOF
 
kubectl apply -f apiserver-to-kubelet-rbac.yaml

7.7、新增加Worker Node

拷贝已部署好的Node相关文件到新节点

7.7.1、在master节点将Worker Node涉及文件拷贝到新节点192.168.219.162/163

scp -r /opt/kubernetes root@192.168.219.162:/opt/
scp -r /usr/lib/systemd/system/{kubelet,kube-proxy}.service root@192.168.219.162:/usr/lib/systemd/system
scp -r /opt/cni/ root@192.168.219.162:/opt/
scp /opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem root@192.168.219.162:/opt/kubernetes/ssl

7.7.2、删除kubelet证书和kubeconfig文件

rm -rf /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.kubeconfig 
rm -rf /opt/kubernetes/ssl/kubelet*
注:这几个文件是证书申请审批后自动生成的,每个Node不同,必须删除重新生成。

7.7.3、修改主机名

vi /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.conf
--hostname-override=k8s-node1
 
vi /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy-config.yml
hostnameOverride: k8s-node1

7.7.4、启动并设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kubelet
systemctl enable kubelet
systemctl start kube-proxy
systemctl enable kube-proxy

7.7.5、在Master上批准新Node kubelet证书申请

# 查看
kubectl get csr
NAME                                                   AGE   SIGNERNAME                                    REQUESTOR           CONDITION
node-csr-4zTjsaVSrhuyhIGqsefxzVoZDCNKei-aE2jyTP81Uro   89s   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   kubelet-bootstrap   Pending

# 批准加入
kubectl certificate approve node-csr-4zTjsaVSrhuyhIGqsefxzVoZDCNKei-aE2jyTP81Uro

# 查看node状态
kubectl get node
NAME         STATUS     ROLES    AGE   VERSION
k8s-master1   Ready      <none>   65m   v1.18.18
k8s-node1    Ready      <none>   12m   v1.18.18
k8s-node2    Ready      <none>   81s   v1.18.18

k8s-node2(192.168.219.163 )节点同上。记得修改主机名!

8、部署Dashboard

8.1、部署Dashboard

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/dashboard/v2.0.0-beta8/aio/deploy/recommended.yaml

默认Dashboard只能集群内部访问,修改Service为NodePort类型,暴露到外部:

vi recommended.yaml
kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  ports:
    - port: 443
      targetPort: 8443
      nodePort: 30001
  type: NodePort
  selector:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard

# 创建flannel网络
kubectl apply -f recommended.yaml

查看:

kubectl get pods,svc -n kubernetes-dashboard
NAME                                             READY   STATUS              RESTARTS   AGE
pod/dashboard-metrics-scraper-694557449d-z8gfb   1/1     Running             0          2m18s
pod/kubernetes-dashboard-9774cc786-q2gsx         1/1     Running             0          2m19s
 
NAME                                TYPE        CLUSTER-IP   EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)         AGE
service/dashboard-metrics-scraper   ClusterIP   10.0.0.141   <none>        8000/TCP        2m19s
service/kubernetes-dashboard        NodePort    10.0.0.239   <none>        443:30001/TCP   2m19s

访问地址:https://NodeIP:30001
创建service account并绑定默认cluster-admin管理员集群角色:

kubectl create serviceaccount dashboard-admin -n kube-system
kubectl create clusterrolebinding dashboard-admin --clusterrole=cluster-admin --serviceaccount=kube-system:dashboard-admin
kubectl describe secrets -n kube-system $(kubectl -n kube-system get secret | awk '/dashboard-admin/{print $1}')

使用输出的token登录Dashboard。
image.png
image.png

9、部署CoreDNS

9.1、下载coredns.yaml

使用wget命令下载下来的coredns.yaml文件有语法问题,所以我这里提供个没有语法问题的yaml文件

CoreDNS用于集群内部Service名称解析。
coredns.yaml文件下载链接
提取码为:pm5t

9.2 创建coredns

# 创建
kubectl apply -f coredns.yaml

# 查看
kubectl get pods -n kube-system 
NAME                          READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
coredns-5ffbfd976d-j6shb      1/1     Running   0          32s
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-2pc95   1/1     Running   0          38m
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-7qhdx   1/1     Running   0          15m
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-99cr8   1/1     Running   0          26m

9.3、DNS解析测试

解析命令:

kubectl run -it --rm dns-test --image=busybox:1.28.4 sh

输出:

If you don't see a command prompt, try pressing enter.
 
/ # nslookup kubernetes
Server:    10.0.0.2
Address 1: 10.0.0.2 kube-dns.kube-system.svc.cluster.local
 
Name:      kubernetes
Address 1: 10.0.0.1 kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local

解析没问题。
至此,单Master集群部署完成,接下来将单Master架构扩展为多Master。

参考

https://blog.51cto.com/lizhen...
https://blog.csdn.net/weixin_...
https://www.fdevops.com/2020/...

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