1

在第一篇文章中,我们已经可以通过 docker 安装 elasticsearch 和 kibana 了。那么这次就直接进入实战演练。

我们会先准备数据,针对不同常见应用场景,然后分别通过 Query DSLSpring Data JPA 来实现。

Query DSL:ElasticSearch提供了一个可以执行的JSON风格的DSL(domain-specific language 领域特定语言),这个被称为Query DSL。

1. 准备

1.1. 索引数据准备

下面就是通过 Query DSL 维护了一个名为 operation_log 的索引,用于记录系统中各个模块的操作日志。

1. 创建索引
PUT /operation_log
2. 维护mapping结构
PUT /operation_log/_mapping
{
  "properties": {
    "ip": {
      "type": "keyword"
    },
    "trace_id": {
      "type": "keyword"
    },
    "operation_time": {
      "type": "date",
      "format": "yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss"
    },
    "module": {
      "type": "keyword"
    },
    "action_code": {
      "type": "keyword"
    },
    "location": {
      "type": "text",
      "analyzer": "ik_max_word",
      "fields": {
        "keyword": {
          "type": "keyword"
        }
      }
    },
    "object_id": {
      "type": "keyword"
    },
    "object_name": {
      "type": "text",
      "analyzer": "ik_max_word",
      "fields": {
        "keyword": {
          "type": "keyword"
        }
      }
    },
    "operator_id": {
      "type": "keyword"
    },
    "operator_name": {
      "type": "keyword"
    },
    "operator_dept_id": {
      "type": "keyword"
    },
    "operator_dept_name": {
      "type": "text",
      "analyzer": "ik_max_word",
      "fields": {
        "keyword": {
          "type": "keyword"
        }
      }
    },
    "changes": {
      "type": "nested",
      "properties": {
        "field_name": {
          "type": "keyword"
        },
        "old_value": {
          "type": "keyword"
        },
        "new_value": {
          "type": "keyword"
        }
      }
    }
  }
}
3. 新建文档

下面一个个文档逐个的新增:

POST /operation_log/_doc
{
  "ip": "10.1.11.1",
  "trace_id": "670021ff9a2dc6b7",
  "operation_time": "2022-05-02 09:31:18",
  "module": "企业组织",
  "action_code": "UPDATE",
  "location": "企业组织->员工管理->身份管理",
  "object_id": "xxxxx-1",
  "object_name": "成德善",
  "operator_id": "operator_id-1",
  "operator_name": "张三",
  "operator_dept_id": "operator_dept_id-1",
  "operator_dept_name": "研发中心-后端一部",
  "changes": [
    {
      "field_name": "手机号码",
      "old_value": "13055660000",
      "new_value": "13055770001"
    },
    {
      "field_name": "姓名",
      "old_value": "成德善",
      "new_value": "成秀妍"
    }
  ]
}

// 同样的调用方式,再插入下面6个文档

// data-2

{
  "ip": "22.1.11.0",
  "trace_id": "990821e89a2dc653",
  "operation_time": "2022-09-05 11:31:10",
  "module": "资源中心",
  "action_code": "UPDATE",
  "location": "资源中心->文件管理->文件权限",
  "object_id": "fffff-1",
  "object_name": "《2022员工绩效打分细则》",
  "operator_id": "operator_id-2",
  "operator_name": "李四",
  "operator_dept_id": "operator_dept_id-2",
  "operator_dept_name": "人力资源部",
  "changes": [
    {
      "field_name": "查看权限",
      "old_value": "仅李四可查看",
      "new_value": "全员可查看"
    },
    {
      "field_name": "编辑权限",
      "old_value": "仅李四可查看",
      "new_value": "人力资源部可查看"
    }
  ]
}

// data-3

{
  "ip": "22.1.11.0",
  "trace_id": "780821e89b2dc653",
  "operation_time": "2022-10-02 12:31:10",
  "module": "资源中心",
  "action_code": "DELETE",
  "location": "资源中心->文件管理",
  "object_id": "fffff-1",
  "object_name": "《2022员工绩效打分细则》",
  "operator_id": "operator_id-3",
  "operator_name": "王五",
  "operator_dept_id": "operator_dept_id-2",
  "operator_dept_name": "人力资源部",
  "changes": []
}

// data-4

{
  "ip": "10.1.11.1",
  "trace_id": "670021e89a2dc7b6",
  "operation_time": "2022-05-03 09:35:10",
  "module": "企业组织",
  "action_code": "ADD",
  "location": "企业组织->员工管理->身份管理",
  "object_id": "xxxxx-2",
  "object_name": "成宝拉",
  "operator_id": "operator_id-1",
  "operator_name": "张三",
  "operator_dept_id": "operator_dept_id-1",
  "operator_dept_name": "研发中心-后端一部",
  "changes": [
    {
      "field_name": "姓名",
      "new_value": "成宝拉"
    },
    {
      "field_name": "性别",
      "new_value": "女"
    },
    {
      "field_name": "手机号码",
      "new_value": "13055770002"
    },
    {
      "field_name": "邮箱",
      "new_value": "baola@qq.com"
    }
  ]
}

// data-5

{
  "ip": "10.1.11.5",
  "trace_id": "670021e89a2dc655",
  "operation_time": "2022-05-05 10:35:12",
  "module": "企业组织",
  "action_code": "DELETE",
  "location": "企业组织->员工管理->身份管理",
  "object_id": "xxxxx-1",
  "object_name": "成德善",
  "operator_id": "operator_id-2",
  "operator_name": "李四",
  "operator_dept_id": "operator_dept_id-2",
  "operator_dept_name": "人力资源部",
  "changes": []
}

// data-6

{
  "ip": "10.0.0.0",
  "trace_id": "670021ff9a28ei6",
  "operation_time": "2022-10-02 09:31:00",
  "module": "资源中心",
  "action_code": "DELETE",
  "location": "资源中心->文件管理",
  "object_id": "fffff-a",
  "object_name": "《有空字符串的文档》",
  "operator_id": "operator_id-a",
  "operator_dept_id": "",
  "operator_dept_name": "",
  "operator_name": "路人A",
  "changes": []
}

// data-7

{
  "ip": "10.0.0.0",
  "trace_id": "670021ff9a28768",
  "operation_time": "2022-10-02 09:32:00",
  "module": "资源中心",
  "action_code": "DELETE",
  "location": "资源中心->文件管理",
  "object_id": "fffff-b",
  "object_name": "《有NULL的文档》",
  "operator_id": "operator_id-b",
  "operator_name": "路人B",
  "changes": []
}

也可被替换为下列的 bulk 方式批量新增,具体 bulk 的语法后续后文会讲:

POST /operation_log/_bulk
{"create":{"_index":"operation_log"}}
{"ip":"10.1.11.1","trace_id":"670021ff9a2dc6b7","operation_time":"2022-05-02 09:31:18","module":"企业组织","action_code":"UPDATE","location":"企业组织->员工管理->身份管理","object_id":"xxxxx-1","object_name":"成德善","operator_id":"operator_id-1","operator_name":"张三","operator_dept_id":"operator_dept_id-1","operator_dept_name":"研发中心-后端一部","changes":[{"field_name":"手机号码","old_value":"13055660000","new_value":"13055770001"},{"field_name":"姓名","old_value":"成德善","new_value":"成秀妍"}]}
{"create":{"_index":"operation_log"}}
{"ip":"22.1.11.0","trace_id":"990821e89a2dc653","operation_time":"2022-09-05 11:31:10","module":"资源中心","action_code":"UPDATE","location":"资源中心->文件管理->文件权限","object_id":"fffff-1","object_name":"《2022员工绩效打分细则》","operator_id":"operator_id-2","operator_name":"李四","operator_dept_id":"operator_dept_id-2","operator_dept_name":"人力资源部","changes":[{"field_name":"查看权限","old_value":"仅李四可查看","new_value":"全员可查看"},{"field_name":"编辑权限","old_value":"仅李四可查看","new_value":"人力资源部可查看"}]}
{"create":{"_index":"operation_log"}}
{"ip":"22.1.11.0","trace_id":"780821e89b2dc653","operation_time":"2022-10-02 12:31:10","module":"资源中心","action_code":"DELETE","location":"资源中心->文件管理","object_id":"fffff-1","object_name":"《2022员工绩效打分细则》","operator_id":"operator_id-3","operator_name":"王五","operator_dept_id":"operator_dept_id-2","operator_dept_name":"人力资源部","changes":[]}
{"create":{"_index":"operation_log"}}
{"ip":"10.1.11.1","trace_id":"670021e89a2dc7b6","operation_time":"2022-05-03 09:35:10","module":"企业组织","action_code":"ADD","location":"企业组织->员工管理->身份管理","object_id":"xxxxx-2","object_name":"成宝拉","operator_id":"operator_id-1","operator_name":"张三","operator_dept_id":"operator_dept_id-1","operator_dept_name":"研发中心-后端一部","changes":[{"field_name":"姓名","new_value":"成宝拉"},{"field_name":"性别","new_value":"女"},{"field_name":"手机号码","new_value":"13055770002"},{"field_name":"邮箱","new_value":"baola@qq.com"}]}
{"create":{"_index":"operation_log"}}
{"ip":"10.1.11.5","trace_id":"670021e89a2dc655","operation_time":"2022-05-05 10:35:12","module":"企业组织","action_code":"DELETE","location":"企业组织->员工管理->身份管理","object_id":"xxxxx-1","object_name":"成德善","operator_id":"operator_id-2","operator_name":"李四","operator_dept_id":"operator_dept_id-2","operator_dept_name":"人力资源部","changes":[]}
{"create":{"_index":"operation_log"}}
{"ip":"10.0.0.0","trace_id":"670021ff9a28ei6","operation_time":"2022-10-02 09:31:00","module":"资源中心","action_code":"DELETE","location":"资源中心->文件管理","object_id":"fffff-a","object_name":"《有空字符串的文档》","operator_id":"operator_id-a","operator_dept_id":"","operator_dept_name":"","operator_name":"路人A","changes":[]}
{"create":{"_index":"operation_log"}}
{"ip":"10.0.0.0","trace_id":"670021ff9a28768","operation_time":"2022-10-02 09:32:00","module":"资源中心","action_code":"DELETE","location":"资源中心->文件管理","object_id":"fffff-b","object_name":"《有NULL的文档》","operator_id":"operator_id-b","operator_name":"路人B","changes":[]}

1.2. spring 项目准备

1. pom.xml
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-elasticsearch</artifactId>
        </dependency>

引入了 spring-boot-starter-data-elasticsearch,我们 spring-parent 版本是 2.7.4 的,即这里对应的 starter 版本也是 2.7.4。对应 spring-data-elasticsearch 版本是 4.4.3

spring data 官网 里有推荐 spring-data-elasticsearch 版本和 elasticsearch 版本的对应关系,建议按照推荐同步版本,本例中 elasticsearch 版本就是 7.17.6

然后下文中 spring 的代码,最好的教材还是去看 spring data 官网

2. application
spring:
  elasticsearch:
    uris: http://localhost:9200
  jackson:
    default-property-inclusion: non_null
3. EO

索引对应的类需要加上 @Document,字段需要加上 @Field。

OperationLog.java

@Data
@Document(indexName = "operation_log")
public class OperationLog {
    @Id
    private String id;

    @Field(type = FieldType.Keyword)
    private String ip;

    @Field(value = "trace_id", type = FieldType.Keyword)
    private String traceId;

    // format={} 不能少
    @Field(value = "operation_time", type = FieldType.Date, format = {}, pattern = "yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss")
    @JsonFormat(pattern = "yyyy.MM.dd HH:mm:ss", timezone = "GMT+8")
    private LocalDateTime operationTime;

    @Field(type = FieldType.Keyword)
    private String module;

    @Field(value = "action_code", type = FieldType.Keyword)
    private String actionCode;

    @Field(type = FieldType.Text, analyzer = "ik_max_word")
    private String location;

    @Field(value = "object_id", type = FieldType.Keyword)
    private String objectId;

    @Field(value = "object_name", type = FieldType.Text, analyzer = "ik_max_word")
    private String objectName;

    @Field(value = "operator_id", type = FieldType.Keyword)
    private String operatorId;

    @Field(value = "operator_name", type = FieldType.Keyword)
    private String operatorName;

    @Field(value = "operator_dept_id", type = FieldType.Keyword)
    private String operatorDeptId;

    @Field(value = "operator_dept_name", type = FieldType.Text, analyzer = "ik_max_word")
    private String operatorDeptName;

    @Field(type = FieldType.Nested)
    private List<OperationLogChange> changes;

}

OperationLogChange.java

@Data
public class OperationLogChange {
    @Field(value = "field_name", type = FieldType.Keyword)
    private String fieldName;

    @Field(value = "old_value", type = FieldType.Keyword)
    private String oldValue;

    @Field(value = "new_value", type = FieldType.Keyword)
    private String newValue;
}

2. 查询

我个人不太喜欢 通过继承 ElasticsearchRepository 来实现 Dao层方法,主要是使用局限性太大,不灵活。官方文档也不太推荐这种,而是比较推崇调用 ElasticsearchRestTemplate 方法。

在官方查询的章节中,有介绍过3种方法:

  1. CriteriaQuery:标准的查询方式,简单的查询还行,但针对一些复杂的查询就有些捉襟见肘了。
  2. NativeSearchQuery:原生的查询方式,基本上和 Query DSL 里面的语法逻辑很相似,所以不担心搞不定复杂的查询。
  3. StringQuery:直接支持执行 Query DSL 字符串。

我个人是推荐 NativeSearchQuery,如果哪天真的面对搞不定的查询,可以偶尔尝试一下 StringQuery。所以,下文中所有 spring 的例子,都是基于 NativeSearchQuery的。

2.1. match_all

1. DSL
GET /operation_log/_search
{
  "query": {
    "match_all": {}
  }
}
2. spring
@AllArgsConstructor
@RestController
@RequestMapping("/dql")
public class DqlController {
    private final ElasticsearchRestTemplate esRestTemplate;

    @GetMapping("")
    public List<OperationLog> findAll() {
        Query query = new NativeSearchQueryBuilder()
                .withQuery(QueryBuilders.matchAllQuery())
                .build();
        return esRestTemplate.search(query, OperationLog.class).stream()
                .map(SearchHit::getContent)
                .collect(Collectors.toList());
    }
}

2.2. match(term)

1. DSL
GET /operation_log/_search
{
  "query": {
    "match": {
      "module": "资源中心"
    }
  }
}
2. spring
        Query query =new NativeSearchQueryBuilder()
                .withQuery(QueryBuilders.matchQuery("module", "资源中心"))
                .build();
        return esRestTemplate.search(query, OperationLog.class).stream()
                .map(SearchHit::getContent)
                .collect(Collectors.toList());

2.3. nested、object

嵌套查询,包含nested、object两种类型。es字段默认类型是object,但数据其实是扁平化存储的。常见的用法是nested,基于父子嵌套文档。可了解nested和object的区别,下面例子按照nested来。

1. DSL
GET operation_log/_search
{
  "query": {
    "nested": {
      "path": "changes",
      "query": {
        "term": {
          "changes.field_name": "姓名"
        }
      }
    }
  }
}
2. spring
        Query query = new NativeSearchQueryBuilder()
                .withQuery(QueryBuilders.nestedQuery("changes",
                        QueryBuilders.termQuery("changes.field_name", "姓名"),
                        ScoreMode.None))
                .build();
        return esRestTemplate.search(query, OperationLog.class).stream()
                .map(SearchHit::getContent)
                .collect(Collectors.toList());

2.4. bool(and) - 1

1. DSL
GET operation_log/_search
{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "term": {
            "action_code": "UPDATE"
          }
        },
        {
          "nested": {
            "path": "changes",
            "query": {
              "term": {
                "changes.field_name": "姓名"
              }
            }
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}
2. spring
        Query query = new NativeSearchQueryBuilder()
                .withQuery(QueryBuilders.boolQuery()
                        .must(QueryBuilders.termQuery("action_code", "UPDATE"))
                        .must(QueryBuilders.nestedQuery("changes",
                                QueryBuilders.termQuery("changes.field_name", "姓名"), ScoreMode.None)))
                .build();
        return esRestTemplate.search(query, OperationLog.class).stream()
                .map(SearchHit::getContent)
                .collect(Collectors.toList());

2.5. bool(and) - 2

1. DSL
GET operation_log/_search
{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must_not": [
        {
          "term": {
            "action_code": "UPDATE"
          }
        }
      ],
      "must": [
        {
          "nested": {
            "path": "changes",
            "query": {
              "term": {
                "changes.field_name": "姓名"
              }
            }
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}
2. spring
        Query query = new NativeSearchQueryBuilder()
                .withQuery(QueryBuilders.boolQuery()
                        .mustNot(QueryBuilders.termQuery("action_code", "UPDATE"))
                        .must(QueryBuilders.nestedQuery("changes",
                                QueryBuilders.termQuery("changes.field_name", "姓名"), ScoreMode.None)))
                .build();
        return esRestTemplate.search(query, OperationLog.class).stream()
                .map(SearchHit::getContent)
                .collect(Collectors.toList());

2.6. bool(or)、exist

1. DSL
GET /operation_log/_search
{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "should": [
        {
          "term": {
            "operator_dept_name.keyword": ""
          }
        },
        {
          "bool": {
            "must_not": [
              {
                "exists": {
                  "field": "operator_dept_name"
                }
              }
            ]
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}
2. spring
        BoolQueryBuilder boolQueryBuilder = QueryBuilders.boolQuery()
                .should(QueryBuilders.termQuery("operator_dept_name.keyword", ""))
                .should(QueryBuilders.boolQuery()
                        .mustNot(QueryBuilders.existsQuery("operator_dept_id")));
        Query query = new NativeSearchQuery(boolQueryBuilder);
        return esRestTemplate.search(query, OperationLog.class).stream()
                .map(SearchHit::getContent)
                .collect(Collectors.toList());

2.7. _source、sort

如果只想查询索引中某几个字段,就可以用到 _source,其中包含两个属性:

  • includes:查询结果包含某些字段。
  • excludes:查询结果屏蔽某些字段。

当二者同时出现时,优先级上:excludes > includes
当只有_source中 includes 时,可以忽略 includes 不写,直接 "_source":[field,...]

sort 可用于排序。

1. DSL
GET /operation_log/_search
{
  "query": {
    "match": {
      "location": "文件"
    }
  },
  "_source": {
    "includes": [
      "module",
      "location",
      "operator_name",
      "operation_time", 
      "changes.field_name"
    ],
    "excludes": [
      "module"
    ]
  },"sort": [
    {
      "operation_time": {
        "order": "asc"
      }
    }
  ]
}

// 也等同于
{
  "query": {
    "match": {
      "location": "文件"
    }
  },
  "_source": [
    "location",
    "operator_name",
    "operation_time",
    "changes.field_name"
  ],
  "sort": [
    {
      "operation_time": {
        "order": "asc"
      }
    }
  ]
}
2. spring
        SourceFilter sourceFilter = new FetchSourceFilterBuilder()
                .withIncludes("module", "location", "operator_name", "operation_time", "changes.field_name")
                .withExcludes("module")
                .build();
        Query query = new NativeSearchQueryBuilder()
                .withQuery(QueryBuilders.matchQuery("location", "文件"))
                .withSourceFilter(sourceFilter)
                .withSort( Sort.by(Sort.Direction.ASC, "operation_time"))
                .build();
        return esRestTemplate.search(query, OperationLog.class).stream()
                .map(SearchHit::getContent)
                .collect(Collectors.toList());

2.8. highlight

这里主要介绍一下highlight里的标签

  • pre_tagspost_tags:这两个标签定义了分割出的结果以什么tag包围起来,和我们前端的<></>效果差不多
  • fields:定义要高亮搜索的属性,name代表名称要高亮,keyWords代表关键词要高亮

    1. DSL
    GET /operation_log/_search
    {
    "query": {
      "match": {
        "location": "文件"
      }
    },
    "highlight": {
      "fields": {
        "location": {}
      },
      "pre_tags": "<span style='color:red'>",
      "post_tags": "</span>"
    }
    }
    
    2. spring
        String matchField = "location";
        HighlightBuilder highlightBuilder = new HighlightBuilder()
                .field(matchField)
                .preTags("<span style='color:red'>")
                .postTags("</span>");
        Query query = new NativeSearchQueryBuilder()
                .withQuery(QueryBuilders.matchQuery(matchField, "文件"))
                .withHighlightBuilder(highlightBuilder)
                .build();
        return esRestTemplate.search(query, OperationLog.class).stream()
                .map(hit -> {
                    OperationLog operationLog = hit.getContent();
                    operationLog.setLocation(hit.getHighlightField(matchField).get(0));
                    return operationLog;
                })
                .collect(Collectors.toList());

2.9. pageable

1. DSL
GET /operation_log/_search
{
  "query": {
    "match_all": {}
  },
  "from": 0,
  "size": 5,
  "sort": [
    {
      "operation_time": {
        "order": "desc"
      }
    }
  ]
}
2. spring
        Query query = new NativeSearchQueryBuilder()
                .withQuery(QueryBuilders.matchAllQuery())
                .withPageable(PageRequest.of(0, 5, Sort.by(Sort.Direction.DESC,"operation_time")))
                .build();
        return esRestTemplate.search(query, OperationLog.class).stream()
                .map(SearchHit::getContent)
                .collect(Collectors.toList());

引用:


KerryWu
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