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Browser Principle-Browser Caching and Local Storage

林一一
中文
Hello everyone, I’m Lin Yiyi. This is an article on the principle of browser caching and local storage. I will continue to publish articles on the principle of browsers in the future.

1. Browser cache

mind Mapping

思维导图.png

The so-called browser cache is HTTP resources locally after requesting network resources through 060c86c227f543. back and forward buttons on the page is to use the browser's cache.
  • The browser cache is divided into two types: strong cache and negotiation cache.
  • The location of browser cache resources is placed in four places Service Worker, Memory Cache, Disk Cache, Push Cache . Service Worker highest priority to Push Cache .

Browser request resource process

Local first, then server (strong cache first and then negotiate cache)
  • When the browser requests a resource, it will first determine whether the header local cache resource has a strong cache hit. If it hits the strong cache, it will directly request the local resource without sending a request to the server.
  • If the strong cache is not hit or the strong cache fails, it will send HTTP request the server. This process uses the negotiation cache

    Simply put, browser cache requests are divided into two types HTTP

Strong cache

The so-called strong cache is that we do not send a HTTP request, but directly obtain resources from the local cache. After success, the status code 200 is returned.
  • Expires/http1.0 and Cache-Control/http1.1 according to the headers field of the response header to perform the process of strong caching.
  • If there is no or invalid strong cache, the browser will send request resources to the server.

    Expires

    The cache field of a page in http1.0 is a Green Time. This time is the time when the browser's strong cache resource expires
    Expires: Wed, 22 Nov 2021 08:41:00 GMT
    The above cached resource will at 160c86c227f87b at 8:41 on November 22, 2021.
  • Disadvantages: the browser is to determine whether the resource expired according to local time, local time but can be modified, so HTTP1.1 when Expires was abandoned.

Cache-Control

强缓存.jpg

The cache field of the page in HTTP1.1. If both Expires and Cache-Control exist, then Cache-Control a higher priority.
  • Cache-Control attribute value, many of them attribute max-age said opposing a cache time

    Cache-Control: max-age = 3600
    Indicates that the local cache can be used directly within one hour from the last request. No need to request again.
  • The attribute public indicates that it can be cached by the browser or proxy server.
  • The attribute private means that it can only be cached by the browser.
  • The attribute no-cache needs to send a request to the server to confirm whether it is cached, which needs to use the negotiation cache.
  • The attribute no-store indicates that caching is forbidden, and the server needs to be requested every time.

Negotiation cache

The so-called negotiation cache means that the browser carries the cached identification tag to send a request to the server, and the server has the carried identifier to determine whether to use the cache. This process is the negotiation cache.
  • There are two types of results returned by the browser requesting the server. One type is 304 , which means that the resources of the server have not been updated and the local cache of the browser can be used directly. The other returns 200 , indicating that the server resources are updated and the new resources are returned to the browser.
  • The cache identifier tag divided into two types: Last-Modified/If-Modified-Since and ETag/If-None-Match . Etag / If-None-Match is higher than that of Last-Modified .

Etag / If-None-Match

Etag.jpg

  • Etag is a unique identifier returned by the server when responding to a request. This identification can only be generated by the server.

    etag: W/"5357d2b3f63545926812b95658505315"
  • If-None-Match, when the browser requests the server again, it will carry the Etag identification value and send it to the server. The server will compare this value with the Etag in the server. If the two values are equal, it will return 304 . If they are not equal, it will return 200 New resources are returned.

Last-Modified/If-Modified-Since

  • Last-Modified refers to the time when the requested resource file was last modified on the server.

    Last-Modified: Wed, 23 Nov 2021 08:41:00 GMT
  • If-Modified-Since, when the browser requests the resource again, it will Last-Modified returned last time to the server. The server compares the last modified time with the current last modified time. If it is greater than If-Modified-Since , the server will return the new resource 200, otherwise it will return 304 .

Cache location

浏览器缓存位置.jpg

The cache location Service Worker, Memory Cache, Disk Cache, Push Cache mentioned above. Service Worker highest priority to Push Cache
  • Service Worker running in the browser's independent thread can realize the browser's caching function, and the transmission protocol needs to use HTTPS .
  • Memory Cache is to cache resources in memory.
  • Disk Cache is to cache resources in the disk
  • Push Cache (Push Cache) is in HTTP/2, which survives in the session session , and the survival time is very short.

Second, the browser's local cache

The browser's local cache is mainly divided into 5 types, localStorage, sessionStorage, cookie, WebSql, indexedDB .

cookie

The cookie is generated by the server and saved to a local file in the browser. The front end can Set-Cookie , and the front end can set multiple Set-Cookie .
  • The cookie can be set to expire time or not, and it will become invalid after the browser is closed.

    Set-Cookie: BDSVRTM=7; path=/
    Set-Cookie: H_PS_PSSID=34130_34099_33969_31253_33848_33607_26350; path=/; domain=.baidu.com
  • cookie reason : It is used for state storage, because http is stateless and cannot record data state, cookie can record data state. Such as user id, password, browsed pages, etc.
  • The advantages of cookie : 1. Remember the status of data, passwords, etc. 2. Make up for the statelessness of HTTP.
  • The shortcomings of : 1. Capacity defect, can only store the 4kb ; 2. Security issue, cookie is a text form that transmits information before the browser and server, and it is likely to be modified. 3. The requested cookie file is easily deleted. 4. High performance consumption, the cookie is closely following the domain name, any address under the domain name is modified to carry the cookie to the server. Cause performance waste.

localStorage

localStorage value in a similar way to cookies. They are all stored under the same domain name. LocalStorage can be stored for a long time without time limit. The value can be accessed through localStorage.setItem()/getItem()
  • localStorage Advantages : 1. Expanded the storage size of cookies, can store 5M size, different browsers; 2. Only stored in the browser will not communicate with the server, which solves the security issues and performance consumption issues of cookies.
  • localStorage Disadvantages : 1. Need to manually delete the saved data; 2. Only support string type, JSON type needs to be converted JSON.stringify()
  • localStorage usage scenario : Use localStorage to store some stable resources and base64 pictures, etc.

sessionStorage

sessionStorage is the same as localStorage, the only big difference is that sessionStorage is session-level storage
  • The session-level sessionStorage means that this storage disappears after the browser page is closed.
  • sessionStorage scenario : sessionStorage can be used to save some temporary data to prevent the data from disappearing after the page disappears, such as form filling and user browser records.

indexedDB

The non-relational database provided by the browser, indexedDB provides a large number of interfaces to provide query functions, and can also create queries.
  • Store values in the form of key-value pairs, including js objects
  • indexedDB is asynchronous, and storing data will not cause page freezes.
  • indexedDB supports transactions. A transaction is a series of operations where an error occurs, and the database will fall back to the state before the transaction.
  • Same-origin restrictions, databases from different sources cannot be accessed.
  • There is no limit to storage space.

webSQL

Obsolete, aiming to use js statement to manipulate sql statement to complete the reading and writing of data.

reference

"Illustrated HTTP"

browser cache

Front-end cache

Local storage

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