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N ways to concatenate String in Java

程序猿阿朗
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1 Introduction

Java provides a variety of ways to concatenate String strings, but sometimes if we don't pay attention to the null string, we may concatenate null into the result, which is obviously not what we want.

In this article, I will introduce some ways to avoid the null value when concatenating Strings.

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2. Problem recurrence

If we want to concatenate String arrays, we can simply use the + operator to concatenate, but we may encounter null value.

String[] values = {"https", "://", "www.", "wdbyte", ".com", null};
String result = "";

for (String value : values) {
    result = result + value;
}

This will concatenate all elements into the resulting string like this:

https://www.wdbyte.comnull

However, we have found the problem, the last null value is also concatenated as a string, which is obviously not what we want.

Also, even if we run on Java 8 or higher and then use the String.join() ) static method to concatenate strings, we get output with the value null .

String[] values = {"https", "://", "www.", "wdbyte", ".com", null};
String result = String.join("", values);
// output: https://www.wdbyte.comnull

Let's take a look at some methods to avoid null value being spliced. My expected output should be:

https://www.wdbyte.com

3. Use the + operator

The addition symbol + can splicing String strings, then we only need to judge null during splicing to replace the null value with an empty string.

for (String value : values) {
  result = result + (value == null ? "" : value);
}

However, we know that String is an immutable object. Using the + number will frequently create a string object, and each time a new string will be created in memory, so using the + symbol to splicing strings is very expensive. .

In order to facilitate the subsequent code demonstration, we extract a method that can pass in a string and return a non-null string.
public String nullToString(String value) {
    return value == null ? "" : value;
}

So the above code could instead call this method:

for (String value : values) {
    result = result + nullToString(value);
}

4. Using String.concat()

String.concat() ) is a method that comes with the String class, and it is very convenient to use this method to splicing strings.

for (String value : values) {
    result = result.concat(getNonNullString(value));
}

Because the nullToString() method is called, there is no null value in the result.

5. Using StringBuilder

The StringBuilder class provides many useful and convenient String construction methods. The most commonly used method is the append() method, which uses append() to splicing strings, and combines nullToString() method to avoid null value.

String[] values = {"https", "://", "www.", "wdbyte", ".com", null};
StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder();
for (String value : values) {
    result = result.append(nullToString(value));
}

The following results can be obtained:

https://www.wdbyte.com

6. Using the StringJoiner class (Java 8+)

The StringJoiner class provides a more powerful string splicing function. It can not only specify the delimiter during splicing, but also specify the prefix and suffix during splicing. Here we can use its add() method to splicing strings.

The same will use the nullToString() method to avoid null value.

String[] values = {"https", "://", "www.", "wdbyte", ".com", null};
StringJoiner result = new StringJoiner("");
for (String value : values) {
    result = result.add(nullToString(value));
}

7. Using Streams.filter (Java 8+)

Stream API is a powerful stream operation class introduced in Java 8, which can perform common filtering, mapping, traversal, grouping, statistics and other operations. The filtering operation filter can receive a Predicate function, and the Predicate function interface is the same as the Function (opens new window) interface, which is a functional interface, and it can accept a generic <T> Boolean type , Predicate is often used for data filtering.

Therefore, we can define a Predicate to check for a string of null and then pass it to the filter() method of the Stream API.

Finally, use the Collectors.joining() method to splice the remaining non- null strings.

String[] values = {"https", "://", "www.", "wdbyte", ".com", null};
String result = Arrays.stream(values)
    .filter(Objects::nonNull)
    .collect(Collectors.joining());

8. Summary

This article introduces several ways to splicing non- null strings. Different methods may be suitable for different scenarios, but it should be noted that splicing String strings is an expensive operation. The following is a benchmark test of several splicing methods using JMH the result of.

Benchmark                   Mode   Cnt       Score        Error  Units
StringConcat.operateAdd     thrpt   25  13635005.992 ± 549759.774  ops/s
StringConcat.String.concat  thrpt   25   7465193.417 ± 667928.552  ops/s
StringConcat.StringBuilder  thrpt   25  13949781.608 ± 142001.421  ops/s
StringConcat.StringJoiner   thrpt   25   9502405.473 ± 211977.433  ops/s
StringConcat.StreamFilter   thrpt   25   8998396.107 ± 649033.722  ops/s

It can be seen that the performance of StringBuilder is the best, and the actual use should be combined with specific scenarios, and then choose the lowest performance overhead method.

As always, the code in the article is located at: github.com/niumoo/JavaNotes

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