ThreadPoolExecutor线程池如何弹性伸缩

更新于 2016-03-08  约 21 分钟

Java基础系列

本文主要分析Java7线程池是如何进行线程的弹性伸缩。

一、worker线程while循环利用空闲线程

final void runWorker(Worker w) {
        Thread wt = Thread.currentThread();
        Runnable task = w.firstTask;
        w.firstTask = null;
        w.unlock(); // allow interrupts
        boolean completedAbruptly = true;
        try {
            while (task != null || (task = getTask()) != null) {
                w.lock();
                // If pool is stopping, ensure thread is interrupted;
                // if not, ensure thread is not interrupted.  This
                // requires a recheck in second case to deal with
                // shutdownNow race while clearing interrupt
                if ((runStateAtLeast(ctl.get(), STOP) ||
                     (Thread.interrupted() &&
                      runStateAtLeast(ctl.get(), STOP))) &&
                    !wt.isInterrupted())
                    wt.interrupt();
                try {
                    beforeExecute(wt, task);
                    Throwable thrown = null;
                    try {
                        task.run();
                    } catch (RuntimeException x) {
                        thrown = x; throw x;
                    } catch (Error x) {
                        thrown = x; throw x;
                    } catch (Throwable x) {
                        thrown = x; throw new Error(x);
                    } finally {
                        afterExecute(task, thrown);
                    }
                } finally {
                    task = null;
                    w.completedTasks++;
                    w.unlock();
                }
            }
            completedAbruptly = false;
        } finally {
            processWorkerExit(w, completedAbruptly);
        }
    }

二、获取任务时从等待队列中取任务

/**
     * Performs blocking or timed wait for a task, depending on
     * current configuration settings, or returns null if this worker
     * must exit because of any of:
     * 1. There are more than maximumPoolSize workers (due to
     *    a call to setMaximumPoolSize).
     * 2. The pool is stopped.
     * 3. The pool is shutdown and the queue is empty.
     * 4. This worker timed out waiting for a task, and timed-out
     *    workers are subject to termination (that is,
     *    {@code allowCoreThreadTimeOut || workerCount > corePoolSize})
     *    both before and after the timed wait.
     *
     * @return task, or null if the worker must exit, in which case
     *         workerCount is decremented
     */
    private Runnable getTask() {
        boolean timedOut = false; // Did the last poll() time out?
        retry:
        for (;;) {
            int c = ctl.get();
            int rs = runStateOf(c);
            // Check if queue empty only if necessary.
            if (rs >= SHUTDOWN && (rs >= STOP || workQueue.isEmpty())) {
                decrementWorkerCount();
                return null;
            }
            boolean timed;      // Are workers subject to culling?
            for (;;) {
                int wc = workerCountOf(c);
                timed = allowCoreThreadTimeOut || wc > corePoolSize;
                if (wc <= maximumPoolSize && ! (timedOut && timed))
                    break;
                if (compareAndDecrementWorkerCount(c))
                    return null;
                c = ctl.get();  // Re-read ctl
                if (runStateOf(c) != rs)
                    continue retry;
                // else CAS failed due to workerCount change; retry inner loop
            }
            try {
                Runnable r = timed ?
                    workQueue.poll(keepAliveTime, TimeUnit.NANOSECONDS) :
                    workQueue.take();
                if (r != null)
                    return r;
                timedOut = true;
            } catch (InterruptedException retry) {
                timedOut = false;
            }
        }
    }

三、等待队列没有任务时销毁并维持必要的线程池大小

/**
     * Performs cleanup and bookkeeping for a dying worker. Called
     * only from worker threads. Unless completedAbruptly is set,
     * assumes that workerCount has already been adjusted to account
     * for exit.  This method removes thread from worker set, and
     * possibly terminates the pool or replaces the worker if either
     * it exited due to user task exception or if fewer than
     * corePoolSize workers are running or queue is non-empty but
     * there are no workers.
     *
     * @param w the worker
     * @param completedAbruptly if the worker died due to user exception
     */
    private void processWorkerExit(Worker w, boolean completedAbruptly) {
        if (completedAbruptly) // If abrupt, then workerCount wasn't adjusted
            decrementWorkerCount();
        final ReentrantLock mainLock = this.mainLock;
        mainLock.lock();
        try {
            completedTaskCount += w.completedTasks;
            workers.remove(w);
        } finally {
            mainLock.unlock();
        }
        tryTerminate();
        int c = ctl.get();
        if (runStateLessThan(c, STOP)) {
            if (!completedAbruptly) {
                int min = allowCoreThreadTimeOut ? 0 : corePoolSize;
                if (min == 0 && ! workQueue.isEmpty())
                    min = 1;
                if (workerCountOf(c) >= min)
                    return; // replacement not needed
            }
            addWorker(null, false);
        }
    }

如果设置了keepAliveTime参数,那么当timeout的时候,就return null,就会跳出循环,回收线程

if (wc <= maximumPoolSize && ! (timedOut && timed))
    break;
if (compareAndDecrementWorkerCount(c))
    return null;

每销毁一个,判断如果销毁后,Worker个数小于corePoolSize,就新增一个新Worker。

线程池最小是corePoolSize,最大是maximumPoolSize,除非设置了allowCoreThreadTimeOut和超时时间,这种情况线程数可能减少到0,最大可能是Integer.MAX_VALUE。

Core pool size is the minimum number of workers to keep alive

  • (and not allow to time out etc) unless allowCoreThreadTimeOut

  • is set, in which case the minimum is zero.

四、执行任务时不够时添加

/**
     * Executes the given task sometime in the future.  The task
     * may execute in a new thread or in an existing pooled thread.
     *
     * If the task cannot be submitted for execution, either because this
     * executor has been shutdown or because its capacity has been reached,
     * the task is handled by the current {@code RejectedExecutionHandler}.
     *
     * @param command the task to execute
     * @throws RejectedExecutionException at discretion of
     *         {@code RejectedExecutionHandler}, if the task
     *         cannot be accepted for execution
     * @throws NullPointerException if {@code command} is null
     */
    public void execute(Runnable command) {
        if (command == null)
            throw new NullPointerException();
        /*
         * Proceed in 3 steps:
         *
         * 1. If fewer than corePoolSize threads are running, try to
         * start a new thread with the given command as its first
         * task.  The call to addWorker atomically checks runState and
         * workerCount, and so prevents false alarms that would add
         * threads when it shouldn't, by returning false.
         *
         * 2. If a task can be successfully queued, then we still need
         * to double-check whether we should have added a thread
         * (because existing ones died since last checking) or that
         * the pool shut down since entry into this method. So we
         * recheck state and if necessary roll back the enqueuing if
         * stopped, or start a new thread if there are none.
         *
         * 3. If we cannot queue task, then we try to add a new
         * thread.  If it fails, we know we are shut down or saturated
         * and so reject the task.
         */
        int c = ctl.get();
        if (workerCountOf(c) < corePoolSize) {
            if (addWorker(command, true))
                return;
            c = ctl.get();
        }
        if (isRunning(c) && workQueue.offer(command)) {
            int recheck = ctl.get();
            if (! isRunning(recheck) && remove(command))
                reject(command);
            else if (workerCountOf(recheck) == 0)
                addWorker(null, false);
        }
        else if (!addWorker(command, false))
            reject(command);
    }

五、运行时更改corePoolSize

/**
     * Sets the core number of threads.  This overrides any value set
     * in the constructor.  If the new value is smaller than the
     * current value, excess existing threads will be terminated when
     * they next become idle.  If larger, new threads will, if needed,
     * be started to execute any queued tasks.
     *
     * @param corePoolSize the new core size
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code corePoolSize < 0}
     * @see #getCorePoolSize
     */
    public void setCorePoolSize(int corePoolSize) {
        if (corePoolSize < 0)
            throw new IllegalArgumentException();
        int delta = corePoolSize - this.corePoolSize;
        this.corePoolSize = corePoolSize;
        if (workerCountOf(ctl.get()) > corePoolSize)
            interruptIdleWorkers();
        else if (delta > 0) {
            // We don't really know how many new threads are "needed".
            // As a heuristic, prestart enough new workers (up to new
            // core size) to handle the current number of tasks in
            // queue, but stop if queue becomes empty while doing so.
            int k = Math.min(delta, workQueue.size());
            while (k-- > 0 && addWorker(null, true)) {
                if (workQueue.isEmpty())
                    break;
            }
        }
    }
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