译码算法

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我们可以通过在有向图$G=(V,E)$中使用动态规划的算法来实现语音识别功能。
对每条边$(u,v) in E$打上一个声音标签$sigma (u,v)$,该声音来自于有限声音集$sum$ 。图中从特定的顶点$v_0 in V$开始的每条路径都对应模型产生一个可能的声音序列。对于一条有向路径,我们定义标签为路径中边的标签的简单连结。

寻找特定的声音序列

对给定的带标签的图$G$,特定顶点$v_0$以及$sum$上的声音序列$sigma=<sigma _1,sigma _2,sigma_3, cdots, sigma_k>$
返回从$G$中从$V_0$开始的一条路径,$s$为该路径的标签(如果存在这样的路径)。否则,返回NO-SUCH-PATH

viterbi_graph.h

#include <iostream>
#include <cmath>
#include <ctime>
#include "stdlib.h"
#include <string.h>
using namespace std;

#define MAXVEX 100

enum color{WHITE,GRAY,BLACK};
enum which_edge{NONE,TREE,BACK,FORWARD,CROSS};

typedef int status;
typedef string VertexType;
typedef int EdgeType;

typedef struct EdgeNode
{
    int Edgestart;
    int Edgeend;  //邻接点域,储存该顶点对应的下标
    EdgeType weight;  //用于存储权值

    int type;
    struct EdgeNode *next;  //下一个邻接点
}EdgeNode;

typedef struct VertexNode  //顶点表结点
{
    VertexType data;  //顶点域,存储顶点信息

    int color;
    int touch,finish;   //访问开始时间和结束时间
    EdgeNode* FirstEdge;  //边表头指针
    int parent; //指向遍历的父结点
}VertexNode,AdjList[MAXVEX];

typedef struct
{
    AdjList adjList; //图的顶点表
    int numNodes,numEdges;
}GraphAdjList;

void CreateALGraph(GraphAdjList *G)
{
    EdgeNode *e;
    cout<<"Input the number of vertexes and edges: "<<endl;
    cin>>G->numNodes>>G->numEdges;

    //输入顶点表的信息
    for(int i=0;i<G->numNodes;i++)
    {
        cout<<"Input the data (information) of vertexes "<<i+1<<endl;
        cin>>G->adjList[i].data;
        G->adjList[i].FirstEdge=NULL;
        G->adjList[i].parent=-1;

        G->adjList[i].color=WHITE;
        G->adjList[i].touch=G->adjList[i].finish=-1;
    }

    int beg,end;
    for(int k=0;k<G->numEdges;k++)
    {
        cout<<"Input the serial number of edges (Vi,Vj) "<<endl;
        cout<<"Input the vertex of beginning: ";
        cin>>beg;

        cout<<"Input the vertex of endding: ";
        cin>>end;

        e=(EdgeNode *)malloc(sizeof(EdgeNode));
        e->Edgeend=end;
        e->Edgestart=beg;
        e->weight=0;
        e->type=NONE;
        e->next=G->adjList[beg].FirstEdge;
        G->adjList[beg].FirstEdge=e;
    }
}

graph_algorithm.h

#include "viterbi_graph.h"

int path_time=0;
int path_exist=0;
int path_print_signal=0;

void print_graph(GraphAdjList *G)
{
    EdgeNode *cur_edge;
    for(int i=0;i<G->numNodes;i++)
    {
        cout<<"The start is "<<G->adjList[i].data<<endl;
        cout<<G->adjList[i].data;
        if(G->adjList[i].FirstEdge)
            cout<<" adjust end is: ";
        for(cur_edge=G->adjList[i].FirstEdge;cur_edge;cur_edge=cur_edge->next)
        {
            cout<<cur_edge->Edgeend<<"  ";
        }
        cout<<endl;
    }
}

void DFS_visit(GraphAdjList *G,int start,int end)
{
    G->adjList[start].color=GRAY;
    path_time++;
    G->adjList[start].touch=path_time;

    for(EdgeNode *cur_e=G->adjList[start].FirstEdge;cur_e;cur_e=cur_e->next)
    {
        if(cur_e->Edgeend==end)
        {
            path_exist=1;
        }
        if(path_exist==1)
            return;
        int cur_end=cur_e->Edgeend;
        if(G->adjList[cur_end].color==WHITE)
        {
            G->adjList->parent=start;
            DFS_visit(G,cur_end,end);
            cur_e->type=TREE;
        }
        else if(G->adjList[cur_end].color==GRAY)
        {
            cur_e->type=BACK;
        }
        else if(G->adjList[cur_end].color==BLACK)
        {
            if(G->adjList[start].touch<G->adjList[end].touch)
                cur_e->type=FORWARD;
            else
                cur_e->type=CROSS;
        }
    }

    //G->adjList[start] has finished
    G->adjList[start].color=BLACK;
    path_time++;
    G->adjList[start].finish=path_time;
}

void DFS(GraphAdjList *G,int start,int end)
{
    for(int u=0;u<G->numNodes;u++)
    {
        G->adjList[u].color=WHITE;
        G->adjList[u].parent=-1;
    }
    path_time=0;
    if(G->adjList[start].color==WHITE)
        DFS_visit(G,start,end);
}

void path_print(GraphAdjList *G,int start,int end)
{
    if(path_exist==1)
    {
        cout<<" "<<start;
        for(EdgeNode *e_ptr=G->adjList[start].FirstEdge;e_ptr;e_ptr=e_ptr->next)
        {
            if(e_ptr->Edgeend==end)
            {
                cout<<" "<<end;
                path_print_signal=1;
                return;
            }
        }
        if(path_print_signal==0)
        {
            for(EdgeNode *e_ptr=G->adjList[start].FirstEdge;e_ptr;e_ptr=e_ptr->next)
            {
                if(e_ptr->type==TREE)
                    path_print(G,e_ptr->Edgeend,end);
            }
        }
    }
    else
    {
        cout<<"The path is not exist"<<endl;
    }
}

viterbi_algorithm.cpp

#include "graph_algorithm.h"

int main()
{
    GraphAdjList G;
    CreateALGraph(&G);

    print_graph(&G);

    int start,end;
    cout<<"Input the start of the edge : "<<endl;
    cin>>start;
    cout<<"Input the end of the edge : "<<endl;
    cin>>end;
    DFS(&G,start,end);
    cout<<endl;
    cout<<path_exist<<endl;

    cout<<G.adjList[start].color<<" "<<G.adjList[start].touch<<" "<<G.adjList[start].finish<<" "<<endl;
    cout<<G.adjList[end].color<<" "<<G.adjList[end].touch<<" "<<G.adjList[end].finish<<" "<<endl;

    cout<<"The path is :"<<endl;
    path_print(&G,start,end);

    return 0;
}

算法运行结果

图片描述

随机游动

假定每条边$(u,v) /in E$都关联一个非负概率$p(u,v)$,它表示从顶点$u$开始,经过边$(u,v)$,产生对应的声音的概率。任何一个顶点射出的概率之和均为1。

一条路径上的概率定义为路径上所有边的概率之积。

状态转移函数

图片描述

可以看出:从$v_1$到$v_4$,最大的概率值为$0.8 times 1=0.8$

动态规划能够实现的状态转移函数如下:

answer=e->probability*DFS_compute(G,e->e_end,end);
//计算从G->adjlist[beg]出发的每一条边,找出最大值
if(answer>G->adjlist[beg].res)
{
    G->adjlist[beg].res=answer;
    G->adjlist[beg].direction=e->e_end;
}

probability_graph.h

#include <iostream>
#include <string.h>
#include "stdlib.h"

using namespace std;

#define MAXVEX 100

typedef int status;
typedef string VertexType;
typedef double EdgeType;

typedef struct Edge
{
    int e_start;
    int e_end;  //邻接点域
    EdgeType probability;  //用于存储权值,即边的概率

    struct Edge *next;
}Edge;

typedef struct Vertex
{
    VertexType data;
    Edge* head; //边表头指针

    int direction;  //用于指明节点下一步该往哪里走
    double res;  //用于储存最后的结果,初始化为-1
    //direction和res要联动
}Vertex,adjvertex[MAXVEX];

typedef struct
{

    adjvertex adjlist; //图的顶点表
    int numNodes,numEdges;
}GraphAdj;

void CreateGraph(GraphAdj *G)
{
    Edge *e;
    cout<<"Input the number of vertexes and edges: "<<endl;
    cin>>G->numNodes>>G->numEdges;

    //输入顶点表信息
    for(int i=0;i<G->numNodes;i++)
    {
        cout<<"Input the data (information) of vertexes "<<i+1<<endl;
        cin>>G->adjlist[i].data;
        G->adjlist[i].head=NULL;
        G->adjlist[i].direction=-1;
        G->adjlist[i].res=-1;
    }

    int beg,end;
    double prob;

    for(int k=0;k<G->numEdges;k++)
    {
        cout<<"Input the serial number of Edges (Vi,Vj) "<<endl;
        cout<<"Input the vertex of beginning: ";
        cin>>beg;

        cout<<"Input the vertex of endding: ";
        cin>>end;

        cout<<"Input the probability of edge: ";
        cin>>prob;

        e=(Edge *)malloc(sizeof(Edge));
        e->e_start=beg;
        e->e_end=end;
        e->probability=prob;

        e->next=G->adjlist[beg].head;
        G->adjlist[beg].head=e;

    }
}

viterbi_probability.h

#include "probability_graph.h"

double answer=1;
double maxpath=0;
int path_exist=0;

int path_print_signal=0;
int has_founded[MAXVEX];

double DFS_compute(GraphAdj *G,int beg,int end);

double max(double a,double b)
{
    return a>b?a:b;
}

double DFSTraverse(GraphAdj *G,int beg,int end)
{
    for(int i=0;i<G->numNodes;i++)
        has_founded[i]=0;

    maxpath=DFS_compute(G,beg,end);
    return maxpath;
}

double DFS_compute(GraphAdj *G,int beg,int end)
{
    if(beg==end)
    {
        answer=1;
        return 1;
    }
    for(Edge *e=G->adjlist[beg].head;e;e=e->next)
    {
        if(has_founded[beg]==1)
        {
            answer=G->adjlist[e->e_start].res;
            return G->adjlist[e->e_start].res;
        }
        if(has_founded[beg]==0)
        {
            if(e->e_end==end)
            {
                path_exist=1;
                answer=e->probability;
                if(answer>G->adjlist[e->e_start].res)
                {
                    G->adjlist[e->e_start].res=answer;
                    G->adjlist[e->e_start].direction=e->e_end;
                }
                return G->adjlist[e->e_start].res;
            }

            answer=e->probability*DFS_compute(G,e->e_end,end);
            //计算从G->adjlist[beg]出发的每一条边,找出最大值
            if(answer>G->adjlist[beg].res)
            {
                G->adjlist[beg].res=answer;
                G->adjlist[beg].direction=e->e_end;
            }
        }        
    }
    //beg开始的answer已经全部计算完了

    has_founded[beg]=1;
    return G->adjlist[beg].res;
}

void print_graph(GraphAdj *G)
{
    Edge *cur_edge;
    for(int i=0;i<G->numNodes;i++)
    {
        cout<<"The start is "<<G->adjlist[i].data<<endl;
        cout<<G->adjlist[i].data;
        if(G->adjlist[i].head)
            cout<<" adjust end is: ";
        for(cur_edge=G->adjlist[i].head;cur_edge;cur_edge=cur_edge->next)
        {
            cout<<cur_edge->e_end<<"  ";
        }
        cout<<endl;
    }
}

viterbi_probability.cpp

#include "viterbi_probability.h"

int main()
{
    GraphAdj G;
    CreateGraph(&G);

    print_graph(&G);

    int start,end;
    cout<<"Input the start of the edge : "<<endl;
    cin>>start;
    cout<<"Input the end of the edge : "<<endl;
    cin>>end;

    double result=DFSTraverse(&G,start,end);
    cout<<endl;
    cout<<path_exist<<endl;
    cout<<result<<endl;

    cout<<"The max path is : "<<endl;
    cout<<start<<" ";
    if(path_exist==1)
    {
        int pathID=G.adjlist[start].direction;
        while(pathID!=end)
        {
            cout<<pathID<<" ";
            pathID=G.adjlist[pathID].direction;
        }
        cout<<end;
    }

    return 0;
}

算法运行结果

图片描述

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