CertBot 快速let's encrypt证书安装

mengdu

因为一些开发的原因,不得不把网站换https,目前免费的ssl证书有 let's encrypt

经过一番的实践,终于把证书正确安装上,这里记录下过程和遇到的问题,方便需要的朋友。

环境

我的环境是阿里云ubuntu-16.04

下载工具

下载 certbot 工具

git clone https://github.com/certbot/certbot

生成ssl证书

按照这个certbot文档的说明操作

cd certbot
./letsencrypt-auto certonly --standalone --email your@qq.com -d your.domain.com

记得修改 your.domain.com 为你的域名

但是并没有如意,报了如下错误:

Bootstrapping dependencies for Debian-based OSes... (you can skip this with --no-bootstrap)
Hit:1 http://mirrors.cloud.aliyuncs.com/ubuntu xenial InRelease
Hit:2 http://mirrors.cloud.aliyuncs.com/ubuntu xenial-updates InRelease
Hit:3 http://mirrors.cloud.aliyuncs.com/ubuntu xenial-security InRelease
Reading package lists... Done                     
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
augeas-lenses is already the newest version (1.4.0-0ubuntu1).
ca-certificates is already the newest version (20160104ubuntu1).
gcc is already the newest version (4:5.3.1-1ubuntu1).
libaugeas0 is already the newest version (1.4.0-0ubuntu1).
libffi-dev is already the newest version (3.2.1-4).
python is already the newest version (2.7.11-1).
python-dev is already the newest version (2.7.11-1).
libssl-dev is already the newest version (1.0.2g-1ubuntu4.8).
openssl is already the newest version (1.0.2g-1ubuntu4.8).
python-virtualenv is already the newest version (15.0.1+ds-3ubuntu1).
virtualenv is already the newest version (15.0.1+ds-3ubuntu1).
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 37 not upgraded.
Creating virtual environment...
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/virtualenv.py", line 2363, in <module>
    main()
  File "/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/virtualenv.py", line 719, in main
    symlink=options.symlink)
  File "/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/virtualenv.py", line 988, in create_environment
    download=download,
  File "/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/virtualenv.py", line 918, in install_wheel
    call_subprocess(cmd, show_stdout=False, extra_env=env, stdin=SCRIPT)
  File "/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/virtualenv.py", line 812, in call_subprocess
    % (cmd_desc, proc.returncode))
OSError: Command /root/.local/share/letsencrypt/bin/python2.7 - setuptools pkg_resources pip wheel failed with error code 2

通过搜索,找到了certbot的issue #issuecomment-273014451

原因是说,系统安装了多个版本的python,那么怎么删除呢?
我按照这里的方法解决了。

解决方法:

apt-get purge python-virtualenv python3-virtualenv virtualenv
pip install virtualenv

然后再次执行ssl证书生成命令:

cd certbot
./letsencrypt-auto certonly --standalone --email your@qq.com -d your.domain.com

这里可能需要等待几分钟,出现类似的信息,则生成成功了。

IMPORTANT NOTES:
 - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at:
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/www.lanyueos.com/fullchain.pem
   Your key file has been saved at:
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/www.lanyueos.com/privkey.pem
   Your cert will expire on 2017-11-14. To obtain a new or tweaked
   version of this certificate in the future, simply run
   letsencrypt-auto again. To non-interactively renew *all* of your
   certificates, run "letsencrypt-auto renew"
 - Your account credentials have been saved in your Certbot
   configuration directory at /etc/letsencrypt. You should make a
   secure backup of this folder now. This configuration directory will
   also contain certificates and private keys obtained by Certbot so
   making regular backups of this folder is ideal.
 - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by:

   Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt:   https://letsencrypt.org/donate
   Donating to EFF:                    https://eff.org/donate-le

配置nginx

在nginx配置文件的server中增加下面代码:


listen 443 ssl;
listen [::]:443 ssl ipv6only=on;

ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/your.domain.com/fullchain.pem;
ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/your.domain.com/privkey.pem;

记得修改 your.domain.com 为你的域名

重启nginx

service nginx start

如果出现启动失败,请执行如下命令检查测配置文件

nginx -t

打开网站:https://your.domain.com 如果看到浏览器的绿色标志,恭喜你设置成功!

自动更新证书

可以新建一个任务 certbot-auto-renew-cron, 这个是一个 cron 计划,这段内容的意思就是 每隔 两个月的 凌晨 2:15 执行 更新操作。

./certbot-auto renew --pre-hook "service nginx stop" --post-hook "service nginx start"

--pre-hook 这个参数表示执行更新操作之前要做的事情,因为我有 --standalone 模式的证书,所以需要 停止 nginx 服务,解除端口占用。
--post-hook 这个参数表示执行更新操作完成后要做的事情,这里就恢复 nginx 服务的启用

crontab certbot-auto-renew-cron
以上工具似乎没有下面的好用,建议使按照下面步骤进行

https 证书安装

https://certbot.eff.org

使用 CertBot 工具快速创建 let's encrypt 证书。

命令

  • certbot certificates 查看所有证书

创建证书

certbot certonly
  --cert-name CERTNAME 指定证书文件名,可选,默认域名同名
  -d DOMAIN 多个逗号隔开

nginx 配置

listen 443 ssl;
listen [::]:443 ssl ipv6only=on;

ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/www.lanyueos.com/fullchain.pem;
ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/www.lanyueos.com/privkey.pem;

续签证书

certbot renew 续签,--pre-hook 可以写 hook

certbot renew --pre-hook "service nginx stop" --post-hook "service nginx start"
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