RTFSC系列之Retrofit

Retrofit基本介绍

Retrofit是Square开源的一个适用于Android和Java的类型安全的HTTP网络框架。其本质是对OKHttp的进一步封装,通过接口的方式进行网络请求,结合了注解、动态代理等技术实现模块解耦,简化了网络请求的上层逻辑。从Android4.4开始,http的底层实现已替换成了OKHttp,Retrofit也因此成为了Android平台上主流的网络框架之一。

http://square.github.io/retro...

Retrofit使用方法

Step1:声明Retrofit API请求接口

    public interface GitHub {
        @GET("/repos/{owner}/{repo}/contributors")
        Call<List<Contributor>> contributors(
            @Path("owner") String owner,
            @Path("repo") String repo);
    }
  • 请求类型:以@GET/POST/PUT/DELETE注解声明
  • 请求相对URL:以请求方法注解内的Value值表示
  • 请求参数:以接口方法@Path参数表示

Step2:构建Retrofit对象并创建API接口实例

    // Create a very simple REST adapter which points the GitHub API.
    Retrofit retrofit = new Retrofit.Builder()
        .baseUrl("https://api.github.com")
        .addConverterFactory(GsonConverterFactory.create())
        .build();

    // Create an instance of our GitHub API interface.
    GitHub github = retrofit.create(GitHub.class);
  • 通过baseUrl接口声明接口请求域名;
  • 配置对象的序列化和反序列化转换工厂;

Step3:通过API接口方法创建Call实例并发起请求

    // Create a call instance for looking up Retrofit contributors.
    Call<List<Contributor>> call = github.contributors("square", "retrofit");

    // Fetch and print a list of the contributors to the library.
    List<Contributor> contributors = call.execute().body();

Retrofit的实现就是这么简单优雅,业务层只需要像调用普通接口一样即可完成网络请求。

Retrofit源码解析

首先要构建一个Retrofit实例,其作用是把接口方法注解转换为OKHttp请求。

Retrofit.Builder.build

public Retrofit build() {
      if (baseUrl == null) {
        throw new IllegalStateException("Base URL required.");
      }

      okhttp3.Call.Factory callFactory = this.callFactory;
      if (callFactory == null) {
        callFactory = new OkHttpClient();
      }

      Executor callbackExecutor = this.callbackExecutor;
      if (callbackExecutor == null) {
        callbackExecutor = platform.defaultCallbackExecutor();
      }

      // Make a defensive copy of the adapters and add the default Call adapter.
      List<CallAdapter.Factory> callAdapterFactories = new ArrayList<>(this.callAdapterFactories);
      callAdapterFactories.add(platform.defaultCallAdapterFactory(callbackExecutor));

      // Make a defensive copy of the converters.
      List<Converter.Factory> converterFactories =
          new ArrayList<>(1 + this.converterFactories.size());

      // Add the built-in converter factory first. This prevents overriding its behavior but also
      // ensures correct behavior when using converters that consume all types.
      converterFactories.add(new BuiltInConverters());
      converterFactories.addAll(this.converterFactories);

      return new Retrofit(callFactory, baseUrl, unmodifiableList(converterFactories),
          unmodifiableList(callAdapterFactories), callbackExecutor, validateEagerly);
    }
  }
  • callFactory,生产并处理请求的工厂(默认创建OKHttpClient)
  • callbackExecutor,用以处理callback线程调度(Android默认回调到主线程)
  • callAdapterFactories,用以生产CallAdapter以处理Response类型转换(默认使用ExecutorCallAdapterFactory)
  • converterFactories,用以生产Converter处理http请求响应的数据转换(默认使用BuiltInConverters)
Retrofit实例化完成,创建API接口动态代理实现。

Retrofit.create

public <T> T create(final Class<T> service) {
    Utils.validateServiceInterface(service);
    if (validateEagerly) {
      eagerlyValidateMethods(service);
    }
    return (T) Proxy.newProxyInstance(service.getClassLoader(), new Class<?>[] { service },
        new InvocationHandler() {
          private final Platform platform = Platform.get();

          @Override public Object invoke(Object proxy, Method method, @Nullable Object[] args)
              throws Throwable {
            // If the method is a method from Object then defer to normal invocation.
            if (method.getDeclaringClass() == Object.class) {
              return method.invoke(this, args);
            }
            if (platform.isDefaultMethod(method)) {
              return platform.invokeDefaultMethod(method, service, proxy, args);
            }
            ServiceMethod<Object, Object> serviceMethod =
                (ServiceMethod<Object, Object>) loadServiceMethod(method);
            OkHttpCall<Object> okHttpCall = new OkHttpCall<>(serviceMethod, args);
            return serviceMethod.adapt(okHttpCall);
          }
        });
  }
  • serviceMethod,负责把接口方法注解转换为http表示(包括httpMethod/header/body/url等)
  • okHttpCall,负责把serviceMethod转换为okhttp3.Call,并且包装了okhttp3.Call的接口调用。
  • serviceMethod.adapt:负责把OKHttpCall转为ExecutorCallbackCall,使其具备线程调度能力。
接口动态代理创建完成,开始执行网络请求。

OKHttpCall.execute

    @Override 
    public Response<T> execute() throws IOException {
        okhttp3.Call call;

        synchronized (this) {
            if (executed) throw new IllegalStateException("Already executed.");
            executed = true;

            if (creationFailure != null) {
                if (creationFailure instanceof IOException) {
                    throw (IOException) creationFailure;
                } else if (creationFailure instanceof RuntimeException) {
                    throw (RuntimeException) creationFailure;
                } else {
                    throw (Error) creationFailure;
                }
            }

            call = rawCall;
            if (call == null) {
                try {
                    call = rawCall = createRawCall();
                } catch (IOException | RuntimeException | Error e) {
                    throwIfFatal(e); //  Do not assign a fatal error to creationFailure.
                    creationFailure = e;
                    throw e;
                }
            }
        }

        if (canceled) {
            call.cancel();
        }

        return parseResponse(call.execute());
    }
ExecutorCallbackCall把网络请求委派给OKHttpCall,后者主要负责:
  • 把接口注解参数转换为okhttp3.Call原始请求
  • 执行okhttp3.Call接口请求,获取Response结果
  • 把ResponseBody转换为接口返回数据类型并回调

1. ServiceMethod.toCall负责将注解参数转换为okhttp3.Call

/** Builds an HTTP request from method arguments. */
  okhttp3.Call toCall(@Nullable Object... args) throws IOException {
    RequestBuilder requestBuilder = new RequestBuilder(httpMethod, baseUrl, relativeUrl, headers,
        contentType, hasBody, isFormEncoded, isMultipart);

    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") // It is an error to invoke a method with the wrong arg types.
    ParameterHandler<Object>[] handlers = (ParameterHandler<Object>[]) parameterHandlers;

    int argumentCount = args != null ? args.length : 0;
    if (argumentCount != handlers.length) {
      throw new IllegalArgumentException("Argument count (" + argumentCount
          + ") doesn't match expected count (" + handlers.length + ")");
    }

    for (int p = 0; p < argumentCount; p++) {
      handlers[p].apply(requestBuilder, args[p]);
    }

    return callFactory.newCall(requestBuilder.build());
  }

2. OkHttpCall.parseResponse负责Response解析及请求结果状态的封装回调。

Response<T> parseResponse(okhttp3.Response rawResponse) throws IOException {
    ResponseBody rawBody = rawResponse.body();

    // Remove the body's source (the only stateful object) so we can pass the response along.
    rawResponse = rawResponse.newBuilder()
        .body(new NoContentResponseBody(rawBody.contentType(), rawBody.contentLength()))
        .build();

    int code = rawResponse.code();
    if (code < 200 || code >= 300) {
      try {
        // Buffer the entire body to avoid future I/O.
        ResponseBody bufferedBody = Utils.buffer(rawBody);
        return Response.error(bufferedBody, rawResponse);
      } finally {
        rawBody.close();
      }
    }

    if (code == 204 || code == 205) {
      rawBody.close();
      return Response.success(null, rawResponse);
    }

    ExceptionCatchingRequestBody catchingBody = new ExceptionCatchingRequestBody(rawBody);
    try {
      T body = serviceMethod.toResponse(catchingBody);
      return Response.success(body, rawResponse);
    } catch (RuntimeException e) {
      // If the underlying source threw an exception, propagate that rather than indicating it was
      // a runtime exception.
      catchingBody.throwIfCaught();
      throw e;
    }
  }

3. ServiceMethod.toResponse负责将ResponseBody转换为接口返回数据类型。

*其内部Converter接口负责把HTTP请求响应结果转换可识别的数据格式。举个栗子:*
  • VoidResponseBodyConverter:不做处理,直接返回RequestBody
  • GsonResponseBodyConverter:将字节流转换为Java对象
  • ToStringConverter:将RequestBody转换为String
/** Builds a method return value from an HTTP response body. */
  R toResponse(ResponseBody body) throws IOException {
    return responseConverter.convert(body);
  }
ExecutorCallbackCall.execute同步请求完之后,直接取出responseConverter转换出来的body即为请求结果。
// Fetch and print a list of the contributors to the library.
    List<Contributor> contributors = call.execute().body();

到此,一个Retrofit GET同步请求流程基本分析完了。想要加深理解,Read the fucking source code!

阅读 850更新于 2018-05-12
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