npm包的发布和管理

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npm包管理

npm其实是Node.js的包管理工具(node package manager)。

为啥我们需要一个包管理工具呢?因为我们在Node.js上开发时,会用到很多别人写的JavaScript代码。如果我们要使用别人写的某个包,每次都根据名称搜索一下官方网站,下载代码,解压,再使用,非常繁琐。于是一个集中管理的工具应运而生:大家都把自己开发的模块打包后放到npm官网上,如果要使用,直接通过npm安装就可以直接用,不用管代码存在哪,应该从哪下载。

更重要的是,如果我们要使用模块A,而模块A又依赖于模块B,模块B又依赖于模块C和模块D,npm可以根据依赖关系,把所有依赖的包都下载下来并管理起来。否则,靠我们自己手动管理,肯定既麻烦又容易出错。

npm的基础使用

npm的指令其实常用的并不多官方文档;列出来如下面:

  • access
    Set access level on published packages
  • adduser

    Add a registry user account
  • audit

    Run a security audit
  • bin

    Display npm bin folder
  • bugs

    Bugs for a package in a web browser maybe
  • build

    Build a package
  • bundle

    REMOVED *已删除*
  • cache

    Manipulates packages cache
  • ci

    Install a project with a clean slate
  • completion

    Tab Completion for npm
  • config

    Manage the npm configuration files
  • dedupe

    Reduce duplication
  • deprecate

    Deprecate a version of a package
  • dist-tag

    Modify package distribution tags
  • docs

    Docs for a package in a web browser maybe
  • doctor

    Check your environments
  • edit

    Edit an installed package
  • explore

    Browse an installed package
  • help-search

    Search npm help documentation
  • help

    Get help on npm
  • hook

    Manage registry hooks
  • init

    create a package.json file
  • install-ci-test

    Install a project with a clean slate and run tests
  • install-test

    Install package(s) and run tests
  • install

    Install a package
  • link

    Symlink a package folder
  • logout

    Log out of the registry
  • ls

    List installed packages
  • npm

    javascript package manager
  • outdated

    Check for outdated packages
  • owner

    Manage package owners
  • pack

    Create a tarball from a package
  • ping

    Ping npm registry
  • prefix

    Display prefix
  • profile

    Change settings on your registry profile
  • prune

    Remove extraneous packages
  • publish

    Publish a package
  • rebuild

    Rebuild a package
  • repo

    Open package repository page in the browser
  • restart

    Restart a package
  • root

    Display npm root
  • run-script

    Run arbitrary package scripts
  • search

    Search for packages
  • shrinkwrap

    Lock down dependency versions for publication
  • star

    Mark your favorite packages
  • stars

    View packages marked as favorites
  • start

    Start a package
  • stop

    Stop a package
  • team

    Manage organization teams and team memberships
  • test

    Test a package
  • token

    Manage your authentication tokens
  • uninstall

    Remove a package
  • unpublish

    Remove a package from the registry
  • update

    Update a package
  • version

    Bump a package version
  • view

    View registry info
  • whoami

    Display npm username
    

init

初始化创建package.json

npm init [--force|-f|--yes|-y|--scope]
npm init <@scope> (same as npx <@scope>/create)
npm init [<@scope>/]<name> (same as npx [<@scope>/]create-<name>)

search

搜索查看远程npm相关资源包信息

npm search [-l|--long] [--json] [--parseable] [--no-description] [search terms ...]
aliases: s, se, find

install

可以是说是install是最为常见的命令官方介绍

npm install (with no args, in package dir)
npm install [<@scope>/]<name>
npm install [<@scope>/]<name>@<tag>
npm install [<@scope>/]<name>@<version>
npm install [<@scope>/]<name>@<version range>
npm install <git-host>:<git-user>/<repo-name>
npm install <git repo url>
npm install <tarball file>
npm install <tarball url>
npm install <folder>

alias: npm i
common options: [-P|--save-prod|-D|--save-dev|-O|--save-optional] [-E|--save-exact] [-B|--save-bundle] [--no-save] [--dry-run]

In global mode (ie, with -g or --global appended to the command), it installs the current package context (ie, the current working directory) as a global package. The -g or --global argument will cause npm to install the package globally rather than locally.

The -f or --force argument will force npm to fetch remote resources even if a local copy exists on disk.

上面的还介绍已经很详细了,所以这里只是讲一下npm install packageName [|--save |--save-prod|--save-dev]的区别;

  • npm install babel
    npm5以前,会把X包安装到node_modules目录中,不会修改package.json的dependencies字段,之后运行npm install命令时,不会自动安装X
  • npm install babel
    npm5以后,会把X包安装到node_modules目录中,会修改package.json的dependencies字段,之后运行npm install命令时,会自动安装X, 线上环境时会被安装
  • npm install babel -P
    -P, --save-prod: Package will appear in your dependencies. This is the default unless -D or -O are present. Package will appear in your dependencies, With the --production flag (or when the NODE_ENV environment variable is set to production), npm will install modules listed in dependencies.
  • npm install babel -D
    Package will appear in your devDependencies,With the --production flag (or when the NODE_ENV environment variable is set to production), npm will not install modules listed in devDependencies. 会把X包安装到node_modules目录中,会在package.json的devDependencies属性下添加X,之后运行npm install命令时,会自动安装X到node_modules目录中,之后运行npm install –production或者注明NODE_ENV变量值为production时,不会自动安装X到node_modules目录中

update

升级某个资源包或者全部资源包到某一个版本或者匹配的最新版本。

npm update [-g] [<pkg>...]
aliases: up, upgrade

uninstall

移除某个资源包

npm uninstall [<@scope>/]<pkg>[@<version>]... [-S|--save|-D|--save-dev|-O|--save-optional|--no-save]
aliases: remove, rm, r, un, unlink

npm包创建、编写、测试、维护

Node出现之前,JavaScript是缺少包结构的。CommonJS致力于改变这种现状,于是定义了包的结构规范。而NPM的出现则是为了在CommonJS规范的基础上,实现解决包的安装卸载,依赖管理,版本管理等问题。require的查找机制明了之后,我们来看一下包的细节。
一个符合CommonJS规范的包应该是如下这种结构:

  • 一个package.json文件应该存在于包顶级目录下
  • 二进制文件应该包含在bin目录下(可选)
  • JavaScript代码入库是index.js,其他包含在lib目录下
  • 文档应该在doc目录下(可选)
  • 单元测试应该在test目录下(可选)

初始化包

  1. 创建包的根目录

    mkdir testpackage
  2. 初始化

    npm init   // 需要进行一些基本配置

编写

  1. 创建入口文件

    touch index.js
  2. 编写代码

    const updateQueryString = function(url, key, value) {
        let urlParts = url.split('#'),
            hash = '',
            uri = urlParts.shift(),
            re = new RegExp(`([?&])${key}=.*?(&|$)`, 'i'),
            separator = uri.indexOf('?') !== -1 ? '&' : '?',
            encodeKey = encodeURIComponent(key),
            encodeValue = encodeURIComponent(value);
    
        urlParts.length > 0 && (hash = `#${urlParts.join('#')}`);
    
        if (uri.match(re)) {
            return uri.replace(re, `$1${encodeKey}=${encodeValue}$2`) + hash;
        } else {
            return `${uri}${separator}${encodeKey}=${encodeValue}${hash}`;
        }
    };
    
    // 最后的导出部分
    module.exports = {
        updateQueryString
    };
  3. 测试

    1. 创建包的根目录

      npm i mocha -D    // 安装测试库
      npm i chai -D     // 安装断言库
      mkdir test
      cd test
      touch index.test.js
    2. 编写测试代码

      const utils = require('./../index.js');
      const expect = require('chai').expect;
      
      let {
          updateQueryString
      } = utils;
      
      describe('updateQueryString函数的测试', function() {
          it('https://test.com/path?test=11 修改test参数为22 应该等于 https://test.com/path?test=22', function() {
              expect(updateQueryString('https://test.com/path?test=11', 'test', 22)).to.be.equal('https://test.com/path?test=22');
          });
      });
    3. 运行测试

      cd ..
      ./node_modules/mocha/bin/mocha 

npm包的发布

  1. 注册账号npm官网
  2. 终端执行 npm login,输入用户名和密码 、邮箱
  3. npm publish 发布

Organization包

我们经常可以看到@angular@ionic他们的包, 都可以以@开头,那么我们的可不可以,原来angular、ionic都属于一个组织(Organization)只有新创建一个Organization组织之后,才能创建@testorg/testpackname这样的包!!!

那么我们就可以去官网上创建我们的Organization,命名之后,官方步骤

  1. 初始化

    npm init --scope=<your_org_name>
    npm init foo -> npx create-foo
    npm init @usr/foo -> npx @usr/create-foo
    npm init @usr -> npx @usr/create
  2. 修改package.json里面的name字段为@your_org_name/<pkg_name>
  3. 发布

    npm publish --access public  // 公开包发布

npm包支持esmodule

使用babel来进行一些现代JavaScript的支持,

  1. 创建配置文件

    touch .babelrc
  2. 安装先关包
  3. 配置babel

    {
      "presets": [
        [
          "@babel/preset-env",
          {
            "targets": {
              "browsers": [
                "last 2 versions",
                "safari >= 7"
              ],
              "chrome": 52,
              "node": "6.10.0"
            },
            "modules": "commonjs",
            "useBuiltIns": "usage"
          }
        ]
      ],
      "plugins": [
        "@babel/plugin-syntax-dynamic-import",
        "@babel/plugin-syntax-import-meta",
        "@babel/plugin-proposal-class-properties",
        "@babel/plugin-proposal-json-strings",
        [
          "@babel/plugin-proposal-decorators",
          {
            "legacy": true
          }
        ],
        "@babel/plugin-proposal-function-sent",
        "@babel/plugin-proposal-export-namespace-from",
        "@babel/plugin-proposal-numeric-separator",
        "@babel/plugin-proposal-throw-expressions",
        "@babel/plugin-proposal-export-default-from",
        "@babel/plugin-proposal-logical-assignment-operators",
        "@babel/plugin-proposal-optional-chaining",
        [
          "@babel/plugin-proposal-pipeline-operator",
          {
            "proposal": "minimal"
          }
        ],
        "@babel/plugin-proposal-nullish-coalescing-operator",
        "@babel/plugin-proposal-do-expressions"
      ]
    }
    
  4. 编译

    ./node_modules/.bin/babel src -d lib

最后的测试代码地址test-demo-npm

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