聊聊flink的FsStateBackend

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本文主要研究一下flink的FsStateBackend

StateBackend

flink-runtime_2.11-1.7.0-sources.jar!/org/apache/flink/runtime/state/StateBackend.java

@PublicEvolving
public interface StateBackend extends java.io.Serializable {

    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    //  Checkpoint storage - the durable persistence of checkpoint data
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    CompletedCheckpointStorageLocation resolveCheckpoint(String externalPointer) throws IOException;

    CheckpointStorage createCheckpointStorage(JobID jobId) throws IOException;

    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    //  Structure Backends 
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    default <K> AbstractKeyedStateBackend<K> createKeyedStateBackend(
            Environment env,
            JobID jobID,
            String operatorIdentifier,
            TypeSerializer<K> keySerializer,
            int numberOfKeyGroups,
            KeyGroupRange keyGroupRange,
            TaskKvStateRegistry kvStateRegistry) throws Exception {
        return createKeyedStateBackend(
            env,
            jobID,
            operatorIdentifier,
            keySerializer,
            numberOfKeyGroups,
            keyGroupRange,
            kvStateRegistry,
            TtlTimeProvider.DEFAULT
        );
    }

    default <K> AbstractKeyedStateBackend<K> createKeyedStateBackend(
        Environment env,
        JobID jobID,
        String operatorIdentifier,
        TypeSerializer<K> keySerializer,
        int numberOfKeyGroups,
        KeyGroupRange keyGroupRange,
        TaskKvStateRegistry kvStateRegistry,
        TtlTimeProvider ttlTimeProvider
    ) throws Exception {
        return createKeyedStateBackend(
            env,
            jobID,
            operatorIdentifier,
            keySerializer,
            numberOfKeyGroups,
            keyGroupRange,
            kvStateRegistry,
            ttlTimeProvider,
            new UnregisteredMetricsGroup());
    }

    <K> AbstractKeyedStateBackend<K> createKeyedStateBackend(
        Environment env,
        JobID jobID,
        String operatorIdentifier,
        TypeSerializer<K> keySerializer,
        int numberOfKeyGroups,
        KeyGroupRange keyGroupRange,
        TaskKvStateRegistry kvStateRegistry,
        TtlTimeProvider ttlTimeProvider,
        MetricGroup metricGroup) throws Exception;
    
    OperatorStateBackend createOperatorStateBackend(Environment env, String operatorIdentifier) throws Exception;
}
  • StateBackend接口定义了有状态的streaming应用的state是如何stored以及checkpointed
  • StateBackend接口定义了createCheckpointStorage、createKeyedStateBackend、createOperatorStateBackend方法;同时继承了Serializable接口;StateBackend接口的实现要求是线程安全的
  • StateBackend有个直接实现的抽象类AbstractStateBackend,而AbstractFileStateBackend及RocksDBStateBackend继承了AbstractStateBackend,之后MemoryStateBackend、FsStateBackend都继承了AbstractFileStateBackend

AbstractStateBackend

flink-runtime_2.11-1.7.0-sources.jar!/org/apache/flink/runtime/state/AbstractStateBackend.java

/**
 * An abstract base implementation of the {@link StateBackend} interface.
 *
 * <p>This class has currently no contents and only kept to not break the prior class hierarchy for users.
 */
@PublicEvolving
public abstract class AbstractStateBackend implements StateBackend, java.io.Serializable {

    private static final long serialVersionUID = 4620415814639230247L;

    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    //  State Backend - State-Holding Backends
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    @Override
    public abstract <K> AbstractKeyedStateBackend<K> createKeyedStateBackend(
        Environment env,
        JobID jobID,
        String operatorIdentifier,
        TypeSerializer<K> keySerializer,
        int numberOfKeyGroups,
        KeyGroupRange keyGroupRange,
        TaskKvStateRegistry kvStateRegistry,
        TtlTimeProvider ttlTimeProvider,
        MetricGroup metricGroup) throws IOException;

    @Override
    public abstract OperatorStateBackend createOperatorStateBackend(
            Environment env,
            String operatorIdentifier) throws Exception;
}
  • AbstractStateBackend声明实现StateBackend及Serializable接口,它将createKeyedStateBackend方法及createOperatorStateBackend方法重新定义为抽象方法

AbstractFileStateBackend

flink-runtime_2.11-1.7.0-sources.jar!/org/apache/flink/runtime/state/filesystem/AbstractFileStateBackend.java

@PublicEvolving
public abstract class AbstractFileStateBackend extends AbstractStateBackend {

    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;

    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    //  State Backend Properties
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    /** The path where checkpoints will be stored, or null, if none has been configured. */
    @Nullable
    private final Path baseCheckpointPath;

    /** The path where savepoints will be stored, or null, if none has been configured. */
    @Nullable
    private final Path baseSavepointPath;

    /**
     * Creates a backend with the given optional checkpoint- and savepoint base directories.
     *
     * @param baseCheckpointPath The base directory for checkpoints, or null, if none is configured.
     * @param baseSavepointPath The default directory for savepoints, or null, if none is set.
     */
    protected AbstractFileStateBackend(
            @Nullable URI baseCheckpointPath,
            @Nullable URI baseSavepointPath) {

        this(baseCheckpointPath == null ? null : new Path(baseCheckpointPath),
                baseSavepointPath == null ? null : new Path(baseSavepointPath));
    }

    /**
     * Creates a backend with the given optional checkpoint- and savepoint base directories.
     *
     * @param baseCheckpointPath The base directory for checkpoints, or null, if none is configured.
     * @param baseSavepointPath The default directory for savepoints, or null, if none is set.
     */
    protected AbstractFileStateBackend(
            @Nullable Path baseCheckpointPath,
            @Nullable Path baseSavepointPath) {

        this.baseCheckpointPath = baseCheckpointPath == null ? null : validatePath(baseCheckpointPath);
        this.baseSavepointPath = baseSavepointPath == null ? null : validatePath(baseSavepointPath);
    }

    /**
     * Creates a new backend using the given checkpoint-/savepoint directories, or the values defined in
     * the given configuration. If a checkpoint-/savepoint parameter is not null, that value takes precedence
     * over the value in the configuration. If the configuration does not specify a value, it is possible
     * that the checkpoint-/savepoint directories in the backend will be null.
     *
     * <p>This constructor can be used to create a backend that is based partially on a given backend
     * and partially on a configuration.
     *
     * @param baseCheckpointPath The checkpoint base directory to use (or null).
     * @param baseSavepointPath The default savepoint directory to use (or null).
     * @param configuration The configuration to read values from.
     */
    protected AbstractFileStateBackend(
            @Nullable Path baseCheckpointPath,
            @Nullable Path baseSavepointPath,
            Configuration configuration) {

        this(parameterOrConfigured(baseCheckpointPath, configuration, CheckpointingOptions.CHECKPOINTS_DIRECTORY),
                parameterOrConfigured(baseSavepointPath, configuration, CheckpointingOptions.SAVEPOINT_DIRECTORY));
    }

    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Gets the checkpoint base directory. Jobs will create job-specific subdirectories
     * for checkpoints within this directory. May be null, if not configured.
     *
     * @return The checkpoint base directory
     */
    @Nullable
    public Path getCheckpointPath() {
        return baseCheckpointPath;
    }

    /**
     * Gets the directory where savepoints are stored by default (when no custom path is given
     * to the savepoint trigger command).
     *
     * @return The default directory for savepoints, or null, if no default directory has been configured.
     */
    @Nullable
    public Path getSavepointPath() {
        return baseSavepointPath;
    }

    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    //  Initialization and metadata storage
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    @Override
    public CompletedCheckpointStorageLocation resolveCheckpoint(String pointer) throws IOException {
        return AbstractFsCheckpointStorage.resolveCheckpointPointer(pointer);
    }

    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    //  Utilities
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Checks the validity of the path's scheme and path.
     *
     * @param path The path to check.
     * @return The URI as a Path.
     *
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException Thrown, if the URI misses scheme or path.
     */
    private static Path validatePath(Path path) {
        final URI uri = path.toUri();
        final String scheme = uri.getScheme();
        final String pathPart = uri.getPath();

        // some validity checks
        if (scheme == null) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("The scheme (hdfs://, file://, etc) is null. " +
                    "Please specify the file system scheme explicitly in the URI.");
        }
        if (pathPart == null) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("The path to store the checkpoint data in is null. " +
                    "Please specify a directory path for the checkpoint data.");
        }
        if (pathPart.length() == 0 || pathPart.equals("/")) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Cannot use the root directory for checkpoints.");
        }

        return path;
    }

    @Nullable
    private static Path parameterOrConfigured(@Nullable Path path, Configuration config, ConfigOption<String> option) {
        if (path != null) {
            return path;
        }
        else {
            String configValue = config.getString(option);
            try {
                return configValue == null ? null : new Path(configValue);
            }
            catch (IllegalArgumentException e) {
                throw new IllegalConfigurationException("Cannot parse value for " + option.key() +
                        " : " + configValue + " . Not a valid path.");
            }
        }
    }
}
  • AbstractFileStateBackend继承了AbstractStateBackend,它有baseCheckpointPath、baseSavepointPath两个属性,允许为null,路径的格式为hdfs://或者file://开头;resolveCheckpoint方法用于解析checkpoint或savepoint的location,这里使用AbstractFsCheckpointStorage.resolveCheckpointPointer(pointer)来完成

FsStateBackend

flink-runtime_2.11-1.7.0-sources.jar!/org/apache/flink/runtime/state/filesystem/FsStateBackend.java

@PublicEvolving
public class FsStateBackend extends AbstractFileStateBackend implements ConfigurableStateBackend {

    private static final long serialVersionUID = -8191916350224044011L;

    /** Maximum size of state that is stored with the metadata, rather than in files (1 MiByte). */
    private static final int MAX_FILE_STATE_THRESHOLD = 1024 * 1024;

    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    /** State below this size will be stored as part of the metadata, rather than in files.
     * A value of '-1' means not yet configured, in which case the default will be used. */
    private final int fileStateThreshold;

    /** Switch to chose between synchronous and asynchronous snapshots.
     * A value of 'undefined' means not yet configured, in which case the default will be used. */
    private final TernaryBoolean asynchronousSnapshots;

    //......

    public FsStateBackend(
            URI checkpointDirectory,
            @Nullable URI defaultSavepointDirectory,
            int fileStateSizeThreshold,
            TernaryBoolean asynchronousSnapshots) {

        super(checkNotNull(checkpointDirectory, "checkpoint directory is null"), defaultSavepointDirectory);

        checkNotNull(asynchronousSnapshots, "asynchronousSnapshots");
        checkArgument(fileStateSizeThreshold >= -1 && fileStateSizeThreshold <= MAX_FILE_STATE_THRESHOLD,
                "The threshold for file state size must be in [-1, %s], where '-1' means to use " +
                        "the value from the deployment's configuration.", MAX_FILE_STATE_THRESHOLD);

        this.fileStateThreshold = fileStateSizeThreshold;
        this.asynchronousSnapshots = asynchronousSnapshots;
    }

    /**
     * Private constructor that creates a re-configured copy of the state backend.
     *
     * @param original The state backend to re-configure
     * @param configuration The configuration
     */
    private FsStateBackend(FsStateBackend original, Configuration configuration) {
        super(original.getCheckpointPath(), original.getSavepointPath(), configuration);

        // if asynchronous snapshots were configured, use that setting,
        // else check the configuration
        this.asynchronousSnapshots = original.asynchronousSnapshots.resolveUndefined(
                configuration.getBoolean(CheckpointingOptions.ASYNC_SNAPSHOTS));

        final int sizeThreshold = original.fileStateThreshold >= 0 ?
                original.fileStateThreshold :
                configuration.getInteger(CheckpointingOptions.FS_SMALL_FILE_THRESHOLD);

        if (sizeThreshold >= 0 && sizeThreshold <= MAX_FILE_STATE_THRESHOLD) {
            this.fileStateThreshold = sizeThreshold;
        }
        else {
            this.fileStateThreshold = CheckpointingOptions.FS_SMALL_FILE_THRESHOLD.defaultValue();

            // because this is the only place we (unlikely) ever log, we lazily
            // create the logger here
            LoggerFactory.getLogger(AbstractFileStateBackend.class).warn(
                    "Ignoring invalid file size threshold value ({}): {} - using default value {} instead.",
                    CheckpointingOptions.FS_SMALL_FILE_THRESHOLD.key(), sizeThreshold,
                    CheckpointingOptions.FS_SMALL_FILE_THRESHOLD.defaultValue());
        }
    }

    /**
     * Gets the base directory where all the checkpoints are stored.
     * The job-specific checkpoint directory is created inside this directory.
     *
     * @return The base directory for checkpoints.
     *
     * @deprecated Deprecated in favor of {@link #getCheckpointPath()}.
     */
    @Deprecated
    public Path getBasePath() {
        return getCheckpointPath();
    }

    /**
     * Gets the base directory where all the checkpoints are stored.
     * The job-specific checkpoint directory is created inside this directory.
     *
     * @return The base directory for checkpoints.
     */
    @Nonnull
    @Override
    public Path getCheckpointPath() {
        // we know that this can never be null by the way of constructor checks
        //noinspection ConstantConditions
        return super.getCheckpointPath();
    }

    /**
     * Gets the threshold below which state is stored as part of the metadata, rather than in files.
     * This threshold ensures that the backend does not create a large amount of very small files,
     * where potentially the file pointers are larger than the state itself.
     *
     * <p>If not explicitly configured, this is the default value of
     * {@link CheckpointingOptions#FS_SMALL_FILE_THRESHOLD}.
     *
     * @return The file size threshold, in bytes.
     */
    public int getMinFileSizeThreshold() {
        return fileStateThreshold >= 0 ?
                fileStateThreshold :
                CheckpointingOptions.FS_SMALL_FILE_THRESHOLD.defaultValue();
    }

    /**
     * Gets whether the key/value data structures are asynchronously snapshotted.
     *
     * <p>If not explicitly configured, this is the default value of
     * {@link CheckpointingOptions#ASYNC_SNAPSHOTS}.
     */
    public boolean isUsingAsynchronousSnapshots() {
        return asynchronousSnapshots.getOrDefault(CheckpointingOptions.ASYNC_SNAPSHOTS.defaultValue());
    }

    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    //  Reconfiguration
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Creates a copy of this state backend that uses the values defined in the configuration
     * for fields where that were not specified in this state backend.
     *
     * @param config the configuration
     * @return The re-configured variant of the state backend
     */
    @Override
    public FsStateBackend configure(Configuration config) {
        return new FsStateBackend(this, config);
    }

    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    //  initialization and cleanup
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    @Override
    public CheckpointStorage createCheckpointStorage(JobID jobId) throws IOException {
        checkNotNull(jobId, "jobId");
        return new FsCheckpointStorage(getCheckpointPath(), getSavepointPath(), jobId, getMinFileSizeThreshold());
    }

    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    //  state holding structures
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    @Override
    public <K> AbstractKeyedStateBackend<K> createKeyedStateBackend(
        Environment env,
        JobID jobID,
        String operatorIdentifier,
        TypeSerializer<K> keySerializer,
        int numberOfKeyGroups,
        KeyGroupRange keyGroupRange,
        TaskKvStateRegistry kvStateRegistry,
        TtlTimeProvider ttlTimeProvider,
        MetricGroup metricGroup) {

        TaskStateManager taskStateManager = env.getTaskStateManager();
        LocalRecoveryConfig localRecoveryConfig = taskStateManager.createLocalRecoveryConfig();
        HeapPriorityQueueSetFactory priorityQueueSetFactory =
            new HeapPriorityQueueSetFactory(keyGroupRange, numberOfKeyGroups, 128);

        return new HeapKeyedStateBackend<>(
                kvStateRegistry,
                keySerializer,
                env.getUserClassLoader(),
                numberOfKeyGroups,
                keyGroupRange,
                isUsingAsynchronousSnapshots(),
                env.getExecutionConfig(),
                localRecoveryConfig,
                priorityQueueSetFactory,
                ttlTimeProvider);
    }

    @Override
    public OperatorStateBackend createOperatorStateBackend(
        Environment env,
        String operatorIdentifier) {

        return new DefaultOperatorStateBackend(
            env.getUserClassLoader(),
            env.getExecutionConfig(),
                isUsingAsynchronousSnapshots());
    }

    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    //  utilities
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return "File State Backend (" +
                "checkpoints: '" + getCheckpointPath() +
                "', savepoints: '" + getSavepointPath() +
                "', asynchronous: " + asynchronousSnapshots +
                ", fileStateThreshold: " + fileStateThreshold + ")";
    }
}
  • FsStateBackend继承了AbstractFileStateBackend,同时实现了ConfigurableStateBackend接口;它的public构造器支持checkpointDirectory、defaultSavepointDirectory、fileStateSizeThreshold及asynchronousSnapshots这几个参数,它要求asynchronousSnapshots不能为null,fileStateSizeThreshold必须大于等于-1,小于等于MAX_FILE_STATE_THRESHOLD
  • configure方法则调用的是private的构造器,它会根据Configuration对当前实例进行重新配置,比如重新设置asynchronousSnapshots,对于fileStateThreshold小于0的,则先取CheckpointingOptions.FS_SMALL_FILE_THRESHOLD的值,之后再对该值进行校正(如果该值大于等于0,小于等于MAX_FILE_STATE_THRESHOLD则取该值,否则取CheckpointingOptions.FS_SMALL_FILE_THRESHOLD.defaultValue())
  • createCheckpointStorage方法创建的是FsCheckpointStorage,createKeyedStateBackend方法创建的是HeapKeyedStateBackend,createOperatorStateBackend方法创建的是DefaultOperatorStateBackend

小结

  • FsStateBackend继承了AbstractFileStateBackend,同时实现了ConfigurableStateBackend接口的configure方法,里头要求fileStateThreshold大于等于-1,小于等于MAX_FILE_STATE_THRESHOLD
  • FsStateBackend对于TaskManager的数据先是存在内存,在checkpoint的时候写入到指定的文件系统,而对于JobManager的metadata则存在内存;它默认采用的是async snapshots来避免阻塞线程;为了避免写太多的小文件,它有一个fileStateThreshold阈值,小于该值时state存储到metadata中而不是文件中
  • createCheckpointStorage方法创建的是FsCheckpointStorage,createKeyedStateBackend方法创建的是HeapKeyedStateBackend,createOperatorStateBackend方法创建的是DefaultOperatorStateBackend

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