从零搭建 Node.js 企业级 Web 服务器(十四):自动化测试

测试类型

测试根据是否涉及软件功能,分为 功能性测试非功能性测试,前者包括单元测试、集成测试、系统测试、接口测试、回归测试、验收测试,后者包括文档测试、安装测试、性能测试、可靠性测试、安全性测试。功能性测试验证了功能逻辑本身是否正确,非功能性测试验证的是除功能之外的逻辑。测试是软件用户信心的重要来源,而自动化测试就是建立这种信心的最高效手段,结合 CI 可以在代码发生变更的每个时刻自动执行测试保障工程的高质量。

c52e37ca29696e960789d7fda2af4105c373113d.jpg

写入自动化测试

本章将基于上一章已完成的工程 host1-tech/nodejs-server-examples - 13-debugging-and-profiling 使用 jestbenchmark 为店铺管理加上关键的功能性与非功能性自动化测试,在工程根目录执行相关模块安装命令:

$ yarn add -D jest supertest execa benchmark beautify-benchmark # 本地安装 jest、supertest、benchmark、beautify-benchmark、execa
# ...
info Direct dependencies
├─ beautify-benchmark@0.2.4
├─ benchmark@2.1.4
├─ execa@4.0.3
├─ jest@26.4.0
└─ supertest@4.0.2
# ...

测试功能

现在就店铺管理的关键用例编写功能测试:

$ mkdir tests   # 新建 tests 存放测试配置脚本

$ tree src -L 1 # 展示当前目录内容结构
.
├── Dockerfile
├── database
├── node_modules
├── package.json
├── public
├── scripts
├── src
├── tests
└── yarn.lock
// tests/globalSetup.js
const { commandSync } = require('execa');

module.exports = () => {
  commandSync('yarn sequelize db:migrate');
};
// jest.config.js
module.exports = {
  globalSetup: '<rootDir>/tests/globalSetup.js',
};
// src/config/index.js
// ...
const config = {
  // ...
  // 测试配置
  test: {
    db: {
      logging: false,
+      storage: 'database/test.db',
    },
  },
  // ...
};
// ...
// package.json
{
  "name": "13-debugging-and-profiling",
  "version": "1.0.0",
  "scripts": {
    "start": "node -r ./scripts/env src/server.js",
    "start:inspect": "cross-env CLUSTERING='' node --inspect-brk -r ./scripts/env src/server.js",
    "start:profile": "cross-env CLUSTERING='' 0x -- node -r ./scripts/env src/server.js",
    "start:prod": "cross-env NODE_ENV=production node -r ./scripts/env src/server.js",
+    "test": "jest",
    "sequelize": "sequelize",
    "sequelize:prod": "cross-env NODE_ENV=production sequelize",
    "build:yup": "rollup node_modules/yup -o src/moulds/yup.js -p @rollup/plugin-node-resolve,@rollup/plugin-commonjs,rollup-plugin-terser -f umd -n 'yup'"
  },
  // ...
}
// src/controllers/shop.test.js
const supertest = require('supertest');
const express = require('express');
const { commandSync } = require('execa');

const shopController = require('./shop');
const { Shop } = require('../models');

describe('controllers/shop', () => {
  const seed = '20200725050230-first-shop.js';
  let server;
  beforeAll(async () => {
    commandSync(`yarn sequelize db:seed --seed ${seed}`);
    server = express().use(await shopController());
  });
  afterAll(() => commandSync(`yarn sequelize db:seed:undo --seed ${seed}`));

  describe('GET /', () => {
    it('should get shop list', async () => {
      const pageIndex = 0;
      const pageSize = 10;
      const shopCount = await Shop.count({ offset: pageIndex * pageSize });

      const res = await supertest(server).get('/');
      expect(res.status).toBe(200);

      const { success, data } = res.body;
      expect(success).toBe(true);
      expect(data).toHaveLength(Math.min(shopCount, pageSize));
    });
  });

  describe('GET /:shopId', () => {
    it('should get shop info', async () => {
      const shop = await Shop.findOne();

      const res = await supertest(server).get(`/${shop.id}`);
      expect(res.status).toBe(200);

      const { success, data } = res.body;
      expect(success).toBe(true);
      expect(data.name).toBe(shop.name);
    });
  });

  describe('PUT /:shopId', () => {
    it('should update if proper shop info give', async () => {
      const shop = await Shop.findOne();
      const shopName = '美珍香';

      const res = await supertest(server).put(
        `/${shop.id}?name=${encodeURIComponent(shopName)}`
      );
      expect(res.status).toBe(200);

      const { success, data } = res.body;
      expect(success).toBe(true);
      expect(data.name).toBe(shopName);
    });

    it('should not update if shop info not valid', async () => {
      const shop = await Shop.findOne();
      const shopName = '';

      const res = await supertest(server).put(
        `/${shop.id}?name=${encodeURIComponent(shopName)}`
      );
      expect(res.status).toBe(400);

      const { success, data } = res.body;
      expect(success).toBe(false);
      expect(data).toBeFalsy();
    });
  });

  describe('POST /', () => {
    it('should create if proper shop info given', async () => {
      const oldShopCount = await Shop.count();

      const shopName = '美珍香';

      const res = await supertest(server).post('/').send(`name=${shopName}`);
      expect(res.status).toBe(200);

      const { success, data } = res.body;
      expect(success).toBe(true);
      expect(data.name).toBe(shopName);

      const newShopCount = await Shop.count();
      expect(newShopCount - oldShopCount).toBe(1);
    });

    it('should not create if shop info not valid', async () => {
      const shopName = '';

      const res = await supertest(server).post('/').send(`name=${shopName}`);
      expect(res.status).toBe(400);

      const { success, data } = res.body;
      expect(success).toBe(false);
      expect(data).toBeFalsy();
    });
  });

  describe('DELETE /:shopid', () => {
    it('should delete shop info', async () => {
      const oldShopCount = await Shop.count();
      const shop = await Shop.findOne();

      const res = await supertest(server).delete(`/${shop.id}`);
      expect(res.status).toBe(200);

      const { success } = res.body;
      expect(success).toBe(true);

      const newShopCount = await Shop.count();
      expect(newShopCount - oldShopCount).toBe(-1);
    });
  });
});

执行测试:

$ yarn test src/controllers # 执行 src/controllers 目录下的功能测试
# ...
_FAIL_ src/controllers/shop.test.js
  controllers/shop
    GET /
      ✓ should get shop list (37 ms)
    GET /:shopId
      ✓ should get shop info (8 ms)
    PUT /:shopId
      ✓ should update if proper shop info give (21 ms)
      ✓ should not update if shop info not valid (11 ms)
    POST /
      ✓ should create if proper shop info given (20 ms)
      ✓ should not create if shop info not valid (4 ms)
    DELETE /:shopid
      ✕ should delete shop info (13 ms)

  ● controllers/shop › DELETE /:shopid › should delete shop info

    expect(received).toBe(expected) // Object.is equality

    Expected: true
    Received: {"createdAt": "2020-08-16T08:00:05.063Z", "id": 470, "name": "美珍香", "updatedAt": "2020-08-16T08:00:05.154Z"}

      111 |
      112 |       const { success } = res.body;
    > 113 |       expect(success).toBe(true);
          |                       ^
      114 |
      115 |       const newShopCount = await Shop.count();
      116 |       expect(newShopCount - oldShopCount).toBe(-1);

      at Object.<anonymous> (src/controllers/shop.test.js:113:23)

Test Suites: 1 failed, 1 total
Tests:       1 failed, 6 passed, 7 total
Snapshots:   0 total
Time:        3.06 s
Ran all test suites matching /src\/controllers/i.
# ...

发现 controllers/shop › DELETE /:shopid › should delete shop info 执行失败,根据提示优化逻辑,然后再次执行测试(也可以使用 jest 的 --watch 参数自动重新执行):

// src/services/shop.js
// ...
class ShopService {
  // ...
  async remove({ id, logging }) {
    const target = await Shop.findByPk(id);

    if (!target) {
      return false;
    }

-    return target.destroy({ logging });
+    return Boolean(target.destroy({ logging }));
  }
  // ...
}
// ...
$ yarn test src/controllers # 执行 src/controllers 目录下的功能测试
# ...
_PASS_ src/controllers/shop.test.js
  controllers/shop
    GET /
      ✓ should get shop list (39 ms)
    GET /:shopId
      ✓ should get shop info (9 ms)
    PUT /:shopId
      ✓ should update if proper shop info give (18 ms)
      ✓ should not update if shop info not valid (6 ms)
    POST /
      ✓ should create if proper shop info given (20 ms)
      ✓ should not create if shop info not valid (3 ms)
    DELETE /:shopid
      ✓ should delete shop info (9 ms)

Test Suites: 1 passed, 1 total
Tests:       7 passed, 7 total
Snapshots:   0 total
Time:        3.311 s
Ran all test suites matching /src\/controllers/i.
# ...

这样就有了对店铺管理功能最基本的自动化测试,考虑到 escapeHtmlInObject 方法的高频使用,需要对此方法编写功能测试用例:

// src/utils/escape-html-in-object.test.js
const escapeHtml = require('escape-html');
const escapeHtmlInObject = require('./escape-html-in-object');

describe('utils/escape-html-in-object', () => {
  it('should escape a string', () => {
    const input = `"'$<>`;
    expect(escapeHtmlInObject(input)).toEqual(escapeHtml(`"'$<>`));
  });

  it('should escape strings in object', () => {
    const input = {
      a: `"'$<>`,
      b: `<>$"'`,
      c: {
        d: `'"$><`,
      },
    };
    expect(escapeHtmlInObject(input)).toEqual({
      a: escapeHtml(`"'$<>`),
      b: escapeHtml(`<>$"'`),
      c: {
        d: escapeHtml(`'"$><`),
      },
    });
  });

  it('should escape strings in array', () => {
    const input = [`"'$<>`, `<>&"'`, [`'"$><`]];
    expect(escapeHtmlInObject(input)).toEqual([
      escapeHtml(`"'$<>`),
      escapeHtml(`<>&"'`),
      [escapeHtml(`'"$><`)],
    ]);
  });

  it('should escape strings in object and array', () => {
    const input1 = {
      a: `"'$<>`,
      b: `<>$"'`,
      c: [`'"$><`, { d: `><&'"` }],
    };
    expect(escapeHtmlInObject(input1)).toEqual({
      a: escapeHtml(`"'$<>`),
      b: escapeHtml(`<>$"'`),
      c: [escapeHtml(`'"$><`), { d: escapeHtml(`><&'"`) }],
    });

    const input2 = [`"'$<>`, `<>&"'`, { a: `'"$><`, b: [`><&'"`] }];
    expect(escapeHtmlInObject(input2)).toEqual([
      escapeHtml(`"'$<>`),
      escapeHtml(`<>&"'`),
      { a: escapeHtml(`'"$><`), b: [escapeHtml(`><&'"`)] },
    ]);
  });

  it('should keep none-string fields in object or array', () => {
    const input1 = {
      a: `"'$<>`,
      b: 1,
      c: null,
      d: true,
      e: undefined,
    };
    expect(escapeHtmlInObject(input1)).toEqual({
      a: escapeHtml(`"'$<>`),
      b: 1,
      c: null,
      d: true,
      e: undefined,
    });

    const input2 = [`"'$<>`, 1, null, true, undefined];
    expect(escapeHtmlInObject(input2)).toEqual([
      escapeHtml(`"'$<>`),
      1,
      null,
      true,
      undefined,
    ]);
  });

  it('should convert sequelize model instance as plain object', () => {
    const input = {
      toJSON: () => ({ a: `"'$<>`, b: `<>$"'` }),
    };

    expect(escapeHtmlInObject(input)).toEqual({
      a: escapeHtml(`"'$<>`),
      b: escapeHtml(`<>$"'`),
    });
  });
});
$ yarn test src/utils # 执行 src/utils 目录下的功能测试
# ...
_FAIL_ src/utils/escape-html-in-object.test.js
  utils/escape-html-in-object
    ✓ should escape a string (2 ms)
    ✓ should escape strings in object (1 ms)
    ✓ should escape strings in array
    ✓ should escape strings in object and array (1 ms)
    ✕ should keep none-string fields in object or array (3 ms)
    ✓ should convert sequelize model instance as plain object (1 ms)

  ● utils/escape-html-in-object › should keep none-string fields in object or array

    TypeError: Cannot convert undefined or null to object
        at Function.keys (<anonymous>)

      16 |     // } else if (input && typeof input == 'object') {
      17 |     const output = {};
    > 18 |     Object.keys(input).forEach((k) => {
         |            ^
      19 |       output[k] = escapeHtmlInObject(input[k]);
      20 |     });
      21 |     return output;

      at escapeHtmlInObject (src/utils/escape-html-in-object.js:18:12)
      at forEach (src/utils/escape-html-in-object.js:19:19)
          at Array.forEach (<anonymous>)
      at escapeHtmlInObject (src/utils/escape-html-in-object.js:18:24)
      at Object.<anonymous> (src/utils/escape-html-in-object.test.js:64:12)

Test Suites: 1 failed, 1 total
Tests:       1 failed, 5 passed, 6 total
Snapshots:   0 total
Time:        1.027 s
Ran all test suites matching /src\/utils/i.
# ...

发现 utils/escape-html-in-object › should keep none-string fields in object or array 执行失败,根据提示优化逻辑,然后再次执行测试:

// src/utils/escape-html-in-object.js
const escapeHtml = require('escape-html');

module.exports = function escapeHtmlInObject(input) {
  // 尝试将 ORM 对象转化为普通对象
  try {
    input = input.toJSON();
  } catch {}

  // 对类型为 string 的值转义处理
  if (Array.isArray(input)) {
    return input.map(escapeHtmlInObject);
-  } else if (typeof input == 'object') {
+  } else if (input && typeof input == 'object') {
    const output = {};
    Object.keys(input).forEach((k) => {
      output[k] = escapeHtmlInObject(input[k]);
    });
    return output;
  } else if (typeof input == 'string') {
    return escapeHtml(input);
  } else {
    return input;
  }
};
$ yarn test src/utils # 执行 src/utils 目录下的功能测试
# ...
_PASS_ src/utils/escape-html-in-object.test.js
  utils/escape-html-in-object
    ✓ should escape a string (2 ms)
    ✓ should escape strings in object (1 ms)
    ✓ should escape strings in array
    ✓ should escape strings in object and array (1 ms)
    ✓ should keep none-string fields in object or array (1 ms)
    ✓ should convert sequelize model instance as plain object

Test Suites: 1 passed, 1 total
Tests:       6 passed, 6 total
Snapshots:   0 total
Time:        1.021 s
Ran all test suites matching /src\/utils/i.
# ...

性能测试

目前 escapeHtmlInObject 功能已经正确执行,再次考虑到此方法的高频使用,对此方法进一步做性能测试:

// src/utils/escape-html-in-object.perf.js
const { Suite } = require('benchmark');
const benchmarks = require('beautify-benchmark');
const escapeHtmlInObject = require('./escape-html-in-object');

const suite = new Suite();

suite.add('sparse special chars', () => {
  escapeHtmlInObject('    &               ');
});

suite.add('sparse special chars in object', () => {
  escapeHtmlInObject({ _: '    &               ' });
});

suite.add('sparse special chars in array', () => {
  escapeHtmlInObject(['    &               ']);
});

suite.add('dense special chars', () => {
  escapeHtmlInObject(`"'&<>"'&<>""''&&<<>>`);
});

suite.add('dense special chars in object', () => {
  escapeHtmlInObject({ _: `"'&<>"'&<>""''&&<<>>` });
});

suite.add('dense special chars in object', () => {
  escapeHtmlInObject([`"'&<>"'&<>""''&&<<>>`]);
});

suite.on('cycle', (e) => benchmarks.add(e.target));
suite.on('complete', () => benchmarks.log());
suite.run({ async: false });

执行测试:

$ node src/utils/escape-html-in-object.perf.js # 执行 escape-html-in-object.perf.js

  6 tests completed.

  sparse special chars           x 39,268 ops/sec ±1.39% (73 runs sampled)
  sparse special chars in object x 15,887 ops/sec ±1.11% (70 runs sampled)
  sparse special chars in array  x 19,084 ops/sec ±1.24% (75 runs sampled)
  dense special chars            x 39,504 ops/sec ±1.07% (89 runs sampled)
  dense special chars in object  x 16,127 ops/sec ±1.04% (87 runs sampled)
  dense special chars in object  x 20,288 ops/sec ±0.90% (94 runs sampled)

发现执行指标比底层模块 escape-html 的低了若干数量级,走查代码怀疑 try-catch 语句引起内存分配与释放导致性能变差,因此尝试使用 if 语句进行替换:

// src/utils/escape-html-in-object.js
const escapeHtml = require('escape-html');

module.exports = function escapeHtmlInObject(input) {
  // 尝试将 ORM 对象转化为普通对象
-  try {
-    input = input.toJSON();
-  } catch {}
+  if (input && typeof input == 'object' && typeof input.toJSON == 'function') {
+    input = input.toJSON();
+  }

  // 对类型为 string 的值转义处理
  if (Array.isArray(input)) {
    return input.map(escapeHtmlInObject);
  } else if (input && typeof input == 'object') {
    const output = {};
    Object.keys(input).forEach((k) => {
      output[k] = escapeHtmlInObject(input[k]);
    });
    return output;
  } else if (typeof input == 'string') {
    return escapeHtml(input);
  } else {
    return input;
  }
};

然后再次执行测试:

$ node src/utils/escape-html-in-object.perf.js # 执行 escape-html-in-object.perf.js

  sparse special chars           x 6,480,336 ops/sec ±1.19% (89 runs sampled)
  sparse special chars in object x 4,597,185 ops/sec ±1.12% (85 runs sampled)
  sparse special chars in array  x 4,131,352 ops/sec ±0.73% (87 runs sampled)
  dense special chars            x 3,512,408 ops/sec ±0.42% (89 runs sampled)
  dense special chars in object  x 3,073,066 ops/sec ±0.45% (90 runs sampled)
  dense special chars in object  x 3,153,604 ops/sec ±0.42% (95 runs sampled)

发现性能指标与 escape-html 相近,表明推断正确。

执行相关功能测试进行回归测试:

$ yarn test src/utils # 执行 src/utils 目录下的功能测试
# ...
_PASS_ src/utils/escape-html-in-object.test.js
  utils/escape-html-in-object
    ✓ should escape a string (2 ms)
    ✓ should escape strings in object
    ✓ should escape strings in array (1 ms)
    ✓ should escape strings in object and array
    ✓ should keep none-string fields in object or array (1 ms)
    ✓ should convert sequelize model instance as plain object

Test Suites: 1 passed, 1 total
Tests:       6 passed, 6 total
Snapshots:   0 total
Time:        1.049 s
Ran all test suites matching /src\/utils/i.
# ...

由于功能测试执行通过,表明功能保持良好,本次性能优化对原有功能不产生影响。

本章源码

host1-tech/nodejs-server-examples - 14-testing

更多阅读

从零搭建 Node.js 企业级 Web 服务器(零):静态服务
从零搭建 Node.js 企业级 Web 服务器(一):接口与分层
从零搭建 Node.js 企业级 Web 服务器(二):校验
从零搭建 Node.js 企业级 Web 服务器(三):中间件
从零搭建 Node.js 企业级 Web 服务器(四):异常处理
从零搭建 Node.js 企业级 Web 服务器(五):数据库访问
从零搭建 Node.js 企业级 Web 服务器(六):会话
从零搭建 Node.js 企业级 Web 服务器(七):认证登录
从零搭建 Node.js 企业级 Web 服务器(八):网络安全
从零搭建 Node.js 企业级 Web 服务器(九):配置项
从零搭建 Node.js 企业级 Web 服务器(十):日志
从零搭建 Node.js 企业级 Web 服务器(十一):定时任务
从零搭建 Node.js 企业级 Web 服务器(十二):远程调用
从零搭建 Node.js 企业级 Web 服务器(十三):断点调试与性能分析
从零搭建 Node.js 企业级 Web 服务器(十四):自动化测试
从零搭建 Node.js 企业级 Web 服务器(十五):总结与展望

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