oushuDB之pgcrypto加密解密

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参考

PGCRYPTO

固若金汤 - PostgreSQL pgcrypto加密插件

Postgresql数据加密函数介绍

pgcrypto安装

## 安装
psql -d <DBNAME> -c 'create schema crypto'

sed 's/SET search_path = public/SET search_path = crypto/g' $GPHOME/share/postgresql/contrib/pgcrypto.sql  | psql  <DBNAME>

## 简单验证
### 加密
select crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt('This is HAWQ', 'password');

### 解密
select crypto.pgp_sym_decrypt(
      crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt('This is HAWQ', 'password'),
      'password'
);

功能介绍

digest()

根据给定的算法获取给定数据的hash值。
标准算法支持有md5、sha1、sha224、sha256、sha384和sha512
e.g.

select crypto.digest('This is HAWQ', 'md5');

hmac()

用key计算hash值,type和digest一样,hmac和digest类似,但是只有知道key的情况下才能计算出哈希值,
这样可以预防更改数据以及更改哈希匹配的情况,如果key大于hash block size,那么先计算哈希值,哈希值作为key使用
e.g.

select crypto.hmac('This is HAWQ', 'This is key','md5');

密码哈希函数

**crypt()用来计算hash值.
gen\_salt()随机产生一个值作为crypt()的算法参数.**
gen\_salt()的type参数为des, xdes, md5, bf.
gen\_salt()的iter\_count指迭代次数, 数字越大加密时间越长, 被破解需要的时间也越长.
crypt()和gen\_salt()的组合主要是提高了逆向破解的难度, 增强了数据的安全性

crypt()支持的算法

算法最大密码长度适应?Salt bits描述
bf72Yes128Blowfish-based, variant 2a
md5unlimitedNo48MD5-based crypt
xdes8Yes24Extended DES
des8No12Original UNIX crypt

crypt()迭代次数

算法默认最小值最大值
xdes725116777215
bf8431
  • xdes额外限制,只能是奇数

hash算法速度

算法Hashes/secFor [a-z]For [A-Za-z0-9]
crypt-bf/828246 years251322 years
crypt-bf/757121 years123457 years
crypt-bf/611262 years62831 years
crypt-bf/521133 years33351 years
crypt-md526812.6 years2625 years
crypt-des3628377 days19 years
sha15902234 days12 years
md523450861 day3 years

crypt和gen\_salt是以牺牲hash速度为代价来换取安全性的

e.g.

## 根据salt获取password对应的hash值
dw=# select crypto.crypt('password', 'salt');
     crypt
---------------
 sa3tHJ3/KuYvI
(1 row)

## password + hash获取对应的hash值
dw=# select crypto.crypt('password', 'sa3tHJ3/KuYvI');
     crypt
---------------
 sa3tHJ3/KuYvI
(1 row)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# 例子
## 原始数据
-- 原始表
dw=# create table s_test(id int,name text);
dw=# insert into s_test values(1,'This is HAWQ');
dw=# select * from s_test;
 id |     name
----+--------------
  1 | This is HAWQ
(1 row)

insert into s_test (id,name) values (2, crypto.crypt('password', crypto.gen_salt('bf',10)));
INSERT 0 1

## 加密后的数据
dw=# select * from s_test;
 id |                             name
----+--------------------------------------------------------------
  1 | This is HAWQ
  2 | $2a$10$qVsnbCuy2z102e9vKa/bfugyDmEUzt5AUzoRNVApQf31iOySx7mgu
(2 rows)

## error password <> password 返回false
dw=# select crypto.crypt('error password', name)=name from s_test where id = 2;
 ?column?
----------
 f
(1 row)

## password == password 返回true
dw=# select crypto.crypt('password', name)=name from s_test where id = 2;
 ?column?
----------
 t
(1 row)
dw=#

PGP 加密函数

该功能实现了部分OpenPGP (RFC 4880)标准的加密。支持对称秘钥公共秘钥的加密。

一条加密的PGP消息包含2个部分,或数据包:

  • 数据包包含一个会话秘钥—加密了的对称秘钥或者是公共秘钥。
  • 数据包包含带有会话秘钥的加密数据。

公共秘钥

pgp\_key\_id()

pgp_key_id抽取一个 PGP 公钥或私钥的密钥 ID。或者如果给定了一个加密过的消息,它给出一个用来加密数据的密钥 ID。

它能够返回 2 个特殊密钥 ID:

  • SYMKEY

    该消息是用一个对称密钥加密的。

  • ANYKEY

    该消息是用公钥加密的,但是密钥 ID 已经被移除。这意味着你将需要尝试你所有的密钥来看看哪个能解密该消息。pgcrypto本身不产生这样的消息。

注意不同的密钥可能具有相同的 ID。这很少见但是是一种正常事件。客户端应用则应该尝试用每一个去解密,看看哪个合适 — 像处理ANYKEY一样

armor(), dearmor()

这些函数把二进制数据包装/解包成 PGP ASCII-armored 格式,其基本上是带有 CRC 和额外格式化的 Base64。

pgp\_pub\_encrypt()

用一个公共 PGP 密钥 key加密data。给这个函数一个私钥会产生一个错误。
options参数可以包含下文所述的选项设置

pgp\_pub\_decrypt()

解密一个公共密钥加密的消息。key必须是对应于用来加密的公钥的私钥。如果私钥是用口令保护的,你必须在psw中给出该口令。如果没有口令,但你想要指定选项,你需要给出一个空口令。

不允许使用pgp_pub_decrypt解密bytea数据。这是为了避免输出非法的字符数据。使用pgp_pub_decrypt_bytea解密原始文本数据是好的。

options参数可以包含下文所述的选项设置。

使用举例
## 生成公钥和密钥
[xx]# gpg --gen-key
gpg (GnuPG) 2.0.22; Copyright (C) 2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

请选择您要使用的密钥种类:
   (1) RSA and RSA (default)
   (2) DSA and Elgamal
   (3) DSA (仅用于签名)
   (4) RSA (仅用于签名)
您的选择? 1
RSA 密钥长度应在 1024 位与 4096 位之间。
您想要用多大的密钥尺寸?(2048)
您所要求的密钥尺寸是 2048 位
请设定这把密钥的有效期限。
         0 = 密钥永不过期
      <n>  = 密钥在 n 天后过期
      <n>w = 密钥在 n 周后过期
      <n>m = 密钥在 n 月后过期
      <n>y = 密钥在 n 年后过期
密钥的有效期限是?(0)
密钥永远不会过期
以上正确吗?(y/n)y

You need a user ID to identify your key; the software constructs the user ID
from the Real Name, Comment and Email Address in this form:
    "Heinrich Heine (Der Dichter) <heinrichh@duesseldorf.de>"

真实姓名:feifeifei
电子邮件地址:
注释:feifeifei
您选定了这个用户标识:
    “feifeifei (feifeifei)”

更改姓名(N)、注释(C)、电子邮件地址(E)或确定(O)/退出(Q)?O
您需要一个密码来保护您的私钥。

我们需要生成大量的随机字节。这个时候您可以多做些琐事(像是敲打键盘、移动
鼠标、读写硬盘之类的),这会让随机数字发生器有更好的机会获得足够的熵数。
我们需要生成大量的随机字节。这个时候您可以多做些琐事(像是敲打键盘、移动
鼠标、读写硬盘之类的),这会让随机数字发生器有更好的机会获得足够的熵数。
gpg: 密钥 512675A3 被标记为绝对信任
公钥和私钥已经生成并经签名。

gpg: 正在检查信任度数据库
gpg: 需要 3 份勉强信任和 1 份完全信任,PGP 信任模型
gpg: 深度:0 有效性:  2 已签名:  0 信任度:0-,0q,0n,0m,0f,2u
pub   2048R/512675A3 2021-03-29
密钥指纹 = 34AE 3E3D C0FE 99CA EA3D  4448 F5DD 1206 5126 75A3
uid                  feifeifei (feifeifei)
sub   2048R/1A6C562B 2021-03-29

## 剔除密码
[xx]# gpg  --passwd feifeifei
gpg (GnuPG) 2.0.22; Copyright (C) 2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

密钥受保护。

您需要输入密码,才能解开这个用户的私钥:“feifeifei (feifeifei)”
2048 位的 RSA 密钥,钥匙号 512675A3,建立于 2021-03-29

输入要给这把私钥用的新密码。

您不想要用密码――这大概是个坏主意!

您真的想要这么做吗?(y/N)y

## 查看钥匙串
[xx]# gpg --list-secret-keys
/root/.gnupg/secring.gpg
------------------------
sec   2048R/512675A3 2021-03-29
uid                  feifeifei (feifeifei)
ssb   2048R/1A6C562B 2021-03-29


## 导出公钥
[xx]# gpg -a --export feifeifei > public.key

## 导出私钥
[xx]# gpg -a --export-secret-keys feifeifei > secret.key
[xx]#


## 测试
### ID=1存放公钥;ID=2存放私钥
create table keys(id int,name text,pkey bytea);

### 将钥匙串导入TABLE( keys )
insert into keys
select 1,'公钥',crypto.dearmor('-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
Version: GnuPG v2.0.22 (GNU/Linux)

mQENBGBiAL8BCAC9GRWDzTyIxEgEgxY0UtgiuxwA4w3dlV5O/iGZ71zzAkpAs7fY
ZfTattp/5KwoAkhR3WRzZS89gQhDkR67Orqw67t45giH65M4f294urOTguyonXtc
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aqd7SIUCwLubjpNxcokAEQEAAYkBHwQYAQIACQUCYGIAvwIbDAAKCRD13RIGUSZ1
owxRCACqPEa1L9zetLwW/yuDuR/h+76qEmQwHmPOo8xUromtiDcZaOAHYCRkJ5wz
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tFX82YVb20ybYYOxDGag6qzE7QJX
=NES5
-----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----');

insert into keys
select 2,'私钥',crypto.dearmor('-----BEGIN PGP PRIVATE KEY BLOCK-----
Version: GnuPG v2.0.22 (GNU/Linux)

lQOYBGBiAL8BCAC9GRWDzTyIxEgEgxY0UtgiuxwA4w3dlV5O/iGZ71zzAkpAs7fY
ZfTattp/5KwoAkhR3WRzZS89gQhDkR67Orqw67t45giH65M4f294urOTguyonXtc
yFTigsHQ5aV5vTOuP/1EarAxb+LV7GUGN4BDDS7nWmpqiPwQ/y8CmgocEf8a6ilc
+6/tedUWX0RGylkMhMGmjXsEG171KYsMYDHZEJYVEAF+3HsarYO/05BcBOaW4pbg
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urBb6HXmtFX82YVb20ybYYOxDGag6qzE7QJX
=395H
-----END PGP PRIVATE KEY BLOCK-----');


### 查看原始的钥匙串的值
select id,name,crypto.armor(pkey) from keys;

### 获取钥匙串的key id
select id,name,crypto.pgp_key_id(pkey) from keys;
 id | name |    pgp_key_id
----+------+------------------
  2 | 私钥 | 086812A41A6C562B
  1 | 公钥 | 086812A41A6C562B
(2 rows)

### 公钥加密
select crypto.pgp_pub_encrypt('This is HAWQ',pkey) from keys where id=1;

### 私钥解密
with t_msg as (
select crypto.pgp_pub_encrypt('This is HAWQ',pkey) as msg from keys where id=1
)
select crypto.pgp_pub_decrypt(msg,pkey) from t_msg join keys on keys.id=2;

对称秘钥

pgp\_sym\_encrypt()

带有一个对称的PGP秘钥psw加密dataoptions参数可以包含选项设置。

e.g.

select crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt(
                                                          'This is HAWQ',   -- 数据
                              'password'        -- 密码
                             );
pgp\_sym\_decrypt()

解密一个对称秘钥加密的PGP消息。
pgp_sym_decrypt解密bytea数据是不允许的。
这是为了避免输出不合法的字符数据。
pgp_sym_decrypt_bytea 解密原始的文本数据是可以的。
options参数可以包含选项设置。

e.g.

select crypto.pgp_sym_decrypt(
                              crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt('This is HAWQ', 'password'),  -- 加密后的数据
                              'password'                                           -- 密码 
                             ) ;

PGP功能的选项

compress-algo

只有PostgreSQL编译的时候带有zlib选项时才可以使用下来该选项的压缩算法

Values:
      0 - no compression
      1 - ZIP compression
      2 - ZLIB compression (= ZIP plus meta-data and block CRCs)
    Default: 0
    Applies to: pgp_sym_encrypt, pgp_pub_encrypt

e.g.

-- 加密
select crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt(
                                                          'This is HAWQ',   -- 数据
                              'password' ,      -- 密码
                              'compress-algo=2'
                             );

-- 解密
select crypto.pgp_sym_decrypt(
                         crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt('This is HAWQ', 'password','compress-algo=2'),  -- 加密后的数据
                         'password'      -- 密码
                             ) ;                             
unicode-mode

Whether to convert textual data from database internal encoding to UTF-8 and back. If your database already is UTF-8, no conversion will be done, but the message will be tagged as UTF-8. Without this option it will not be.

Values: 0, 1
    Default: 0
    Applies to: pgp_sym_encrypt, pgp_pub_encrypt

e.g.

-- 加密
select crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt(
                                                          'This is HAWQ',   -- 数据
                              'password' ,      -- 密码
                              'unicode-mode=1'
                             );

-- 解密
select crypto.pgp_sym_decrypt(
                         crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt('This is HAWQ', 'password','unicode-mode=1'),  -- 加密后的数据
                         'password'      -- 密码
                             ) ; 
compress-level

How much to compress. Higher levels compress smaller but are slower. 0 disables compression.

    Values: 0, 1-9
    Default: 6
    Applies to: pgp_sym_encrypt, pgp_pub_encrypt

e.g.

-- 加密
select crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt(
                                                          'This is HAWQ',   -- 数据
                              'password' ,      -- 密码
                              'compress-level=9'
                             );

-- 解密
select crypto.pgp_sym_decrypt(
                         crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt('This is HAWQ', 'password','compress-level=9'),  -- 加密后的数据
                         'password'      -- 密码
                             ) ; 
cipher-algo

Which cipher algorithm to use.

    Values: bf, aes128, aes192, aes256 (OpenSSL-only: 3des, cast5)
    Default: aes128
    Applies to: pgp_sym_encrypt, pgp_pub_encrypt   

e.g.

-- 加密
select crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt(
                                                          'This is HAWQ',   -- 数据
                              'password' ,      -- 密码
                              'cipher-algo=aes256'
                             );
 
-- 解密 
select crypto.pgp_sym_decrypt(
                         crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt('This is HAWQ', 'password','cipher-algo=aes256'),  -- 加密后的数据
                         'password'      -- 密码
                             ) ; 
convert-crlf

Whether to convert \n into \r\n when encrypting and \r\n to \n when decrypting. RFC 4880 specifies that text data should be stored using \r\n line-feeds. Use this to get fully RFC-compliant behavior.

    Values: 0, 1
    Default: 0
    Applies to: pgp_sym_encrypt, pgp_pub_encrypt, pgp_sym_decrypt, pgp_pub_decrypt

e.g.

-- 加密
select crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt(
                                                          'This is HAWQ',   -- 数据
                              'password' ,      -- 密码
                              'convert-crlf=1'
                             );

-- 解密
select crypto.pgp_sym_decrypt(
                         crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt('This is HAWQ', 'password','convert-crlf=1'),  -- 加密后的数据
                         'password'      -- 密码
                             ) ; 
disable-mdc

Do not protect data with SHA-1. The only good reason to use this option is to achieve compatibility with ancient PGP products, predating the addition of SHA-1 protected packets to RFC 4880. Recent gnupg.org and pgp.com software supports it fine.

    Values: 0, 1
    Default: 0
    Applies to: pgp_sym_encrypt, pgp_pub_encrypt

e.g.

-- 加密
select crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt(
                                                          'This is HAWQ',   -- 数据
                              'password' ,      -- 密码
                              'disable-mdc=1'
                             );

-- 解密
select crypto.pgp_sym_decrypt(
                         crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt('This is HAWQ', 'password','disable-mdc=1'),  -- 加密后的数据
                         'password'      -- 密码
                             ) ; 
s2k-mode

Which S2K algorithm to use.

    Values:
      0 - Without salt.  Dangerous!
      1 - With salt but with fixed iteration count.
      3 - Variable iteration count.
    Default: 3
    Applies to: pgp_sym_encrypt

e.g.

-- 加密
select crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt(
                                                          'This is HAWQ',   -- 数据
                              'password' ,      -- 密码
                              's2k-mode=1'
                             );

-- 解密
select crypto.pgp_sym_decrypt(
                      crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt('This is HAWQ', 'password','s2k-mode=1'),  -- 加密后的数据
                         'password'      -- 密码
                             ) ; 
s2k-digest-algo

Which digest algorithm to use in S2K calculation.

    Values: md5, sha1
    Default: sha1
    Applies to: pgp_sym_encrypt

e.g.

-- 加密
select crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt(
                                                          'This is HAWQ',   -- 数据
                              'password' ,      -- 密码
                              's2k-digest-algo=md5'
                             );

-- 解密
select crypto.pgp_sym_decrypt(
                      crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt('This is HAWQ', 'password','s2k-digest-algo=md5'),  -- 加密后的数据
                         'password'      -- 密码
                             ) ; 
s2k-cipher-algo

Which cipher to use for encrypting separate session key.

    Values: bf, aes, aes128, aes192, aes256
    Default: use cipher-algo
    Applies to: pgp_sym_encrypt

e.g.

-- 加密
select crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt(
                                                          'This is HAWQ',   -- 数据
                              'password' ,      -- 密码
                              's2k-cipher-algo=aes256'
                             );

-- 解密
select crypto.pgp_sym_decrypt(
                     crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt('This is HAWQ', 'password','s2k-cipher-algo=aes256'),  -- 加密后的数据
                         'password'      -- 密码
                             ) ; 
enable-session-key

Use separate session key. Public-key encryption always uses a separate session key; this is for symmetric-key encryption, which by default uses the S2K key directly.

    Values: 0, 1
    Default: 0
    Applies to: pgp_sym_encrypt

e.g.

PGP功能的选项的复合选项

-- 加密
select crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt(
                                                          'This is HAWQ',   -- 数据
                              'password' ,      -- 密码
                              'compress-algo=2,unicode-mode=1,compress-level=9,convert-crlf=1,disable-mdc=1,s2k-mode=1,s2k-digest-algo=md5,cipher-algo=bf,s2k-cipher-algo=bf'
                             );
 
 
-- 解密 
select crypto.pgp_sym_decrypt(
                     crypto.pgp_sym_encrypt(
                                                          'This is HAWQ',   -- 数据
                              'password' ,      -- 密码
                              'compress-algo=2,unicode-mode=1,compress-level=9,convert-crlf=1,disable-mdc=1,s2k-mode=1,s2k-digest-algo=md5,cipher-algo=bf,s2k-cipher-algo=bf'
                             ),  -- 加密后的数据
  
                         'password'      -- 密码
                             ) ; 
                             
-- cipher-algo 与 s2k-cipher-algo 必须需要一致                          
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