一个Camel Multicast组件聚合策略问题的解决过程

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摘要:本文通过案例,发现了一个Camel Multicast组件聚合策略相关的问题。通过查看Camel源代码,找到了问题原因并给出了解决方案。希望本文可以帮助到遇到同样问题的Camel用户。

本文分享自华为云社区《使用Apache Camel Multicast组件遇到的一个问题》,作者:中间件小哥。

1 前言

本文翻译自华为加拿大研究所的Reji Mathews发表于Apache Camel社区的《ROUTING MULTICAST OUTPUT AFTER ENCOUNTERING PARTIAL FAILURES》一文。在征得原作者同意后,本文对原文的部分内容作了少许修改。

2 Multicast组件简介

Multicast是Apache Camel(以下简称“Camel”)中一个功能强大的EIP组件,可以将消息发送至多条子路径,然后并行地执行它们。

参考官网文档,我们可以使用两种方式配置Multicast组件:

  • 独立执行所有子路径,并将最后响应的子路径的结果作为最终输出。这也是Multicast组件的默认配置。
  • 通过实现Camel的聚合策略(Aggregation Strategy),使用自定义的聚合器来处理所有子路径的输出。

3 问题描述

本文使用案例如下:使用Jetty组件发布一个API,调用该API后,消息会分别发送至"direct:A"和"direct:B"两条子路径。在使用自定义的聚合策略处理后,继续执行后续步骤。其中在"direct:A"中抛出一个异常,来模拟运行失败;"direct:B"正常运行。同时在onException中定义了异常处理策略。

本文使用的Camel版本为3.8.0

@Override
public void configure() throws Exception {
    onException(Exception.class)
        .useOriginalMessage()
        .handled(true)
        .log("Exception handler invoked")
        .transform().constant("{\"data\" : \"err\"}")
        .end();
 
 from("jetty:http://localhost:8081/myapi?httpMethodRestrict=GET")
        .log("received request")
        .log("Entering multicast")
        .multicast(new SimpleFlowMergeAggregator())
        .parallelProcessing().to("direct:A", "direct:B")
        .end()
        .log("Aggregated results ${body}")
        .log("Another log")
        .transform(simple("{\"result\" : \"success\"}"))
        .end();
 
    from("direct:A")
        .log("Executing PATH_1 - exception path")
        .transform(constant("DATA_FROM_PATH_1"))
        .log("Starting exception throw")
        .throwException(new Exception("USER INITIATED EXCEPTION"))
        .log("PATH_1")
        .end();
 
    from("direct:B")
        .log("Executing PATH_2 - success path")
        .delayer(1000)
        .transform(constant("DATA_FROM_PATH_2"))
        .log("PATH_2")
        .end();
}

自定义聚合器SimpleFlowMergeAggregator定义如下,其中我们将所有子路径的结果放入一个list对象。

public class SimpleFlowMergeAggregator implements AggregationStrategy {
    private static final Logger LOGGER = LoggerFactory.getLogger(SimpleFlowMergeAggregator.class.getName());
    @Override
    public Exchange aggregate(Exchange oldExchange, Exchange newExchange) {
        LOGGER.info("Inside aggregator " + newExchange.getIn().getBody());
        if(oldExchange == null) {
            String data = newExchange.getIn().getBody(String.class);
            List<String> aggregatedDataList = new ArrayList<>();
            aggregatedDataList.add(data);
            newExchange.getIn().setBody(aggregatedDataList);
            return newExchange;
        }
 
        List<String> oldData = oldExchange.getIn().getBody(List.class);
        oldData.add(newExchange.getIn().getBody(String.class));
        oldExchange.getIn().setBody(oldData);
 
        return oldExchange;
    }
}

基于对Multicast组件执行逻辑的理解,我们认为存在多个子路径时,其运行结果应该为:如果其中有一条子路径能运行成功,则使用聚合的结果继续执行后续步骤;如果所有子路径都运行失败,则停止整个路由(route)。本案例中,由于子路径"direct:A"运行异常,子路径"direct:B"运行正常,则应该正常执行后续两个步骤日志(log)和转换(transform)。

运行上述案例,日志信息如下:

2021-05-06 12:43:18.565 INFO 13956 --- [qtp916897446-42] route1 : received request
2021-05-06 12:43:18.566 INFO 13956 --- [qtp916897446-42] route1 : Entering multicast
2021-05-06 12:43:18.575 INFO 13956 --- [ #4 - Multicast] route2 : Executing PATH_1 - exception path
2021-05-06 12:43:18.575 INFO 13956 --- [ #4 - Multicast] route2 : Starting exception throw
2021-05-06 12:43:18.578 INFO 13956 --- [ #4 - Multicast] route2 : Exception handler invoked
2021-05-06 12:43:18.579 INFO 13956 --- [ #4 - Multicast] c.e.d.m.SimpleFlowMergeAggregator : Inside aggregator {"data" : "err"}
2021-05-06 12:43:19.575 INFO 13956 --- [ #3 - Multicast] route3 : Executing PATH_2 - success path
2021-05-06 12:43:21.576 INFO 13956 --- [ #3 - Multicast] route3 : PATH_2
2021-05-06 12:43:21.576 INFO 13956 --- [ #3 - Multicast] c.e.d.m.SimpleFlowMergeAggregator : Inside aggregator DATA_FROM_PATH_2

观察上述日志,我们发现完成两条子路径结果的聚合后,后续的两个步骤日志(log)和转换(transform)并未执行。这并不符合我们期望的结果。

经过多次测试,我们还发现,只有当到达聚合器SimpleFlowMergeAggregator的第一个子路径("direct:A")执行异常时,便会发生这种后续步骤未执行的情况;而如果第一个子路径("direct:A")执行成功,即使另一个子路径("direct:B")执行失败,也会继续执行后续的步骤。

4 问题分析

接下来,我们通过查看Camel源代码,来找出上述现象的原因。

在camel-core-processors模块的Pipeline.java 中,其run()方法中有这样一段代码:

@Override
public void run() {
    boolean stop = exchange.isRouteStop();
    int num = index;
    boolean more = num < size;
    boolean first = num == 0;
 
    if (!stop && more && (first || continueProcessing(exchange, "so breaking out of pipeline", LOG))) {
 
 // prepare for next run
        if (exchange.hasOut()) {
            exchange.setIn(exchange.getOut());
            exchange.setOut(null);
        }
 
 // get the next processor
        AsyncProcessor processor = processors.get(index++);
 
        processor.process(exchange, this);
    } else {
 // copyResults is needed in case MEP is OUT and the message is not an OUT message
        ExchangeHelper.copyResults(exchange, exchange);
 
 // logging nextExchange as it contains the exchange that might have altered the payload and since
 // we are logging the completion if will be confusing if we log the original instead
 // we could also consider logging the original and the nextExchange then we have *before* and *after* snapshots
        if (LOG.isTraceEnabled()) {
            LOG.trace("Processing complete for exchangeId: {} >>> {}", exchange.getExchangeId(), exchange);
        }
 
        AsyncCallback cb = callback;
        taskFactory.release(this);
        reactiveExecutor.schedule(cb);
    }
}

其中,这个if判断决定了是否继续执行后续步骤:

if (!stop && more && (first || continueProcessing(exchange, "so breaking out of pipeline", LOG)))

可以看出,在如下三种情况下,后续步骤将不会被执行:

  1. 之前的步骤已经将exchange 对象标记为停止状态。

boolean stop = exchange.isRouteStop();

  1. 后续没有步骤可执行。

boolean more = num < size;

  1. continueProcessing()方法返回false。

我们来看看continueProcessing()方法的代码。

public final class PipelineHelper {
    public static boolean continueProcessing(Exchange exchange, String message, Logger log) {
        ExtendedExchange ee = (ExtendedExchange) exchange;
        boolean stop = ee.isFailed() || ee.isRollbackOnly() || ee.isRollbackOnlyLast()
                || (ee.isErrorHandlerHandledSet() && ee.isErrorHandlerHandled());
        if (stop) {
            if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
                StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
                sb.append("Message exchange has failed: ").append(message).append(" for exchange: ").append(exchange);
                if (exchange.isRollbackOnly() || exchange.isRollbackOnlyLast()) {
                    sb.append(" Marked as rollback only.");
                }
                if (exchange.getException() != null) {
                    sb.append(" Exception: ").append(exchange.getException());
                }
                if (ee.isErrorHandlerHandledSet() && ee.isErrorHandlerHandled()) {
                    sb.append(" Handled by the error handler.");
                }
                log.debug(sb.toString());
            }
 
            return false;
        }
        if (ee.isRouteStop()) {
            if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
                log.debug("ExchangeId: {} is marked to stop routing: {}", exchange.getExchangeId(), exchange);
            }
            return false;
        }
 
        return true;
    }
}

可以看出,当执行过程发生异常并且被异常处理器捕获时,continueProcessing()方法将返回false。

再回到我们的案例,第一个到达聚合器SimpleFlowMergeAggregator的子路径("direct:A"),会作为后续聚合的基础,其它子路径("direct:B")会在此基础上追加各自的body数据。实际上,很多Camel用户都会采用这种方式来实现自定义聚合策略。但这样做存在一个问题:在异常处理时,子路径"direct:A"的exchange对象会被设置一个状态标识,而此状态标识会被传递到下游,用于判断是否继续执行后续步骤。由于作为聚合基础的"direct:A"子路径的exchange对象状态为“异常”,最终continueProcessing()方法将返回false,后续的步骤也就不会再执行。

5 解决方案

对于上述问题,用户可以使用多种方式来设置异常处理时exchange对象的状态。本文采用如下解决方案:如果第一个子路径执行正常,则继续执行后续步骤;如果第一个子路径执行异常,则将其与其它执行成功的子路径交换,然后继续执行后续步骤。

更新后的自定义聚合器SimpleFlowMergeAggregator如下:

public class SimpleFlowMergeAggregator implements AggregationStrategy {
    private static final Logger LOGGER = LoggerFactory.getLogger(SimpleFlowMergeAggregator.class.getName());
    @Override
    public Exchange aggregate(Exchange oldExchange, Exchange newExchange) {
        LOGGER.info("Inside aggregator " + newExchange.getIn().getBody());
        if(oldExchange == null) {
            String data = newExchange.getIn().getBody(String.class);
            List<String> aggregatedDataList = new ArrayList<>();
            aggregatedDataList.add(data);
            newExchange.getIn().setBody(aggregatedDataList);
            return newExchange;
        }
 
        if(hadException(oldExchange)) {
            if(!hadException(newExchange)) {
 // aggregate and swap the base
                LOGGER.info("Found new exchange with success. swapping the base exchange");
                List<String> oldData = oldExchange.getIn().getBody(List.class);
                oldData.add(newExchange.getIn().getBody(String.class));
            // swapped the base here
                newExchange.getIn().setBody(oldData);                 
                return newExchange;
            }
        }
 
        List<String> oldData = oldExchange.getIn().getBody(List.class);
        oldData.add(newExchange.getIn().getBody(String.class));
        oldExchange.getIn().setBody(oldData);
 
        return oldExchange;
    }
 
 
    private boolean hadException(Exchange exchange) {
 
        if(exchange.isFailed()) {
            return true;
        }
 
        if(exchange.isRollbackOnly()) {
            return true;
        }
 
        if(exchange.isRollbackOnlyLast()) {
            return true;
        }
 
        if(((ExtendedExchange)exchange).isErrorHandlerHandledSet()
                && ((ExtendedExchange)exchange).isErrorHandlerHandled()) {
            return true;
        }
 
        return false;
    }
}

再次运行上述案例,日志信息如下:

2021-05-06 12:46:19.122 INFO 2576 --- [qtp174245837-45] route1 : received request
2021-05-06 12:46:19.123 INFO 2576 --- [qtp174245837-45] route1 : Entering multicast
2021-05-06 12:46:19.130 INFO 2576 --- [ #3 - Multicast] route2 : Executing PATH_1 - exception path
2021-05-06 12:46:19.130 INFO 2576 --- [ #3 - Multicast] route2 : Starting exception throw
2021-05-06 12:46:19.134 INFO 2576 --- [ #3 - Multicast] route2 : Exception handler invoked
2021-05-06 12:46:19.135 INFO 2576 --- [ #3 - Multicast] c.e.d.m.SimpleFlowMergeAggregator : Inside aggregator {"data" : "err"}
2021-05-06 12:46:20.130 INFO 2576 --- [ #4 - Multicast] route3 : Executing PATH_2 - success path
2021-05-06 12:46:22.132 INFO 2576 --- [ #4 - Multicast] route3 : PATH_2
2021-05-06 12:46:22.132 INFO 2576 --- [ #4 - Multicast] c.e.d.m.SimpleFlowMergeAggregator : Inside aggregator DATA_FROM_PATH_2
2021-05-06 12:46:22.132 INFO 2576 --- [ #4 - Multicast] c.e.d.m.SimpleFlowMergeAggregator : Found new exchange with success. swapping the base exchange
2021-05-06 12:46:22.133 INFO 2576 --- [ #4 - Multicast] route1 : Aggregated results {"data" : "err"},DATA_FROM_PATH_2
2021-05-06 12:46:22.133 INFO 2576 --- [ #4 - Multicast] route1 : Another log

可以看出,使用新的自定义聚合策略后,后续的日志(log)和转换(transform)步骤都成功执行。

6 结语

本文通过案例,发现了一个Camel Multicast组件聚合策略相关的问题。通过查看Camel源代码,找到了问题原因并给出了解决方案。

希望本文可以帮助到遇到同样问题的Camel用户。

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