腾讯云联网环境下搭建kubernetes集群

对你无可奈何

背景:

网络环境参照:云联网体验,上海 北京两个vpc网络。服务器分布如下:
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讲一下为什么使用TencentOS Server 3.1 (TK4)的系统。还不是因为centos8不提供长期维护了....,顺便体验一下腾讯云开源的tencentos.详情见腾讯云官网:https://cloud.tencent.com/document/product/213/38027。毕竟是与centos8兼容的,按照centos8的搭建kubernetes的流程搭建一遍kubernetes体验一下跨区域是否可行!

基本规划:

注:嗯多区域打散比较也可以高可用!

iphostname所在区域
10.10.2.8sh-master-01上海2区
10.10.2.10sh-master-02上海2区
10.10.5.4sh-master-03上海5区
10.10.4.7sh-work-01上海4区
10.10.4.14sh-work-02上海4区
10.10.12.9bj-work-01北京5区

创建一个内网负载均衡slb,做apiserver的vip,过去一直用的传统型,现在只有应用型负载均衡了......
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系统初始化

注:1-12为所有节点执行

1.更改主机名

注:主机名没有初始化的修改主机名

[root@VM-2-8-centos ~]# hostnamectl set-hostname sh-master-01
[root@VM-2-8-centos ~]# cat /etc/hostname
sh-master-01

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其他几台同样的方式

2. 关闭swap交换分区

swapoff -a
sed -i 's/.*swap.*/#&/' /etc/fstab

3. 关闭selinux

[root@sh-master-01 ~]# setenforce  0 
ssive/SELINUX=disabled/g" /etc/selinux/configsetenforce: SELinux is disabled
[root@sh-master-01 ~]# sed -i "s/^SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=disabled/g" /etc/sysconfig/selinux 
[root@sh-master-01 ~]# sed -i "s/^SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=disabled/g" /etc/selinux/config 
[root@sh-master-01 ~]# sed -i "s/^SELINUX=permissive/SELINUX=disabled/g" /etc/sysconfig/selinux 
[root@sh-master-01 ~]# sed -i "s/^SELINUX=permissive/SELINUX=disabled/g" /etc/selinux/config

4. 关闭防火墙

systemctl disable --now firewalld
chkconfig firewalld off

注:都没有安装firewalld and iptables可以忽略

5. 调整文件打开数等配置

cat> /etc/security/limits.conf <<EOF
* soft nproc 1000000
* hard nproc 1000000
* soft nofile 1000000
* hard nofile 1000000
* soft  memlock  unlimited
* hard memlock  unlimited
EOF

当然了貌似tencentos limits.d目录下有个80-nofile.conf,修改配置文件可以都放在这里。这样可以避免修改主文件
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6. yum update

yum update
yum -y install  gcc bc gcc-c++ ncurses ncurses-devel cmake elfutils-libelf-devel openssl-devel flex* bison* autoconf automake zlib* fiex* libxml* ncurses-devel libmcrypt* libtool-ltdl-devel* make cmake  pcre pcre-devel openssl openssl-devel   jemalloc-devel tlc libtool vim unzip wget lrzsz bash-comp* ipvsadm ipset jq sysstat conntrack libseccomp conntrack-tools socat curl wget git conntrack-tools psmisc nfs-utils tree bash-completion conntrack libseccomp net-tools crontabs sysstat iftop nload strace bind-utils tcpdump htop telnet lsof

当然了 我这里忽略了......我cvm初始化一般会用oneinstack的脚本完成初始化一下

7. ipvs添加

tencentos的系统内核是5.4.119

:> /etc/modules-load.d/ipvs.conf
module=(
ip_vs
ip_vs_rr
ip_vs_wrr
ip_vs_sh
nf_conntrack
br_netfilter
  )
for kernel_module in ${module[@]};do
    /sbin/modinfo -F filename $kernel_module |& grep -qv ERROR && echo $kernel_module >> /etc/modules-load.d/ipvs.conf || :
done
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable --now systemd-modules-load.service

验证ipvs是否加载成功

# lsmod | grep ip_vs
ip_vs_sh               16384  0
ip_vs_wrr              16384  0
ip_vs_rr               16384  5
ip_vs                 151552  11 ip_vs_rr,ip_vs_sh,ip_vs_wrr
nf_conntrack          114688  5 xt_conntrack,nf_nat,nf_conntrack_netlink,xt_MASQUERADE,ip_vs
nf_defrag_ipv6         20480  2 nf_conntrack,ip_vs

8. 优化系统参数(不一定是最优,各取所有)

oneinstack默认的 初始化安装的,先不改了,慢慢看 。等一会有问题了找问题
cat /etc/sysctl.d/99-sysctl.conf

fs.file-max=1000000
net.ipv4.tcp_max_tw_buckets = 6000
net.ipv4.tcp_sack = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_window_scaling = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096 87380 4194304
net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096 16384 4194304
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 16384
net.core.netdev_max_backlog = 32768
net.core.somaxconn = 32768
net.core.wmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_max = 16777216
net.core.wmem_max = 16777216
net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 20
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_syn_retries = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
#net.ipv4.tcp_tw_len = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 94500000 915000000 927000000
net.ipv4.tcp_max_orphans = 3276800
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65000
net.nf_conntrack_max = 6553500
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_max = 6553500
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_tcp_timeout_close_wait = 60
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_tcp_timeout_fin_wait = 120
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_tcp_timeout_time_wait = 120
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_tcp_timeout_established = 3600

9. containerd安装

dnf 与yum centos8的变化,具体的自己去看了呢。差不多吧.......,添加阿里云的源习惯了如下:

dnf install dnf-utils device-mapper-persistent-data lvm2
yum-config-manager --add-repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/docker-ce/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo
sudo yum update -y && sudo yum install -y containerd.io
containerd config default > /etc/containerd/config.toml
# 替换 containerd 默认的 sand_box 镜像,编辑 /etc/containerd/config.toml

sandbox_image = "registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/pause:3.2"

# 重启containerd
$ systemctl daemon-reload
$ systemctl restart containerd

看来还是搞不定....匹配的版本不对啊哈哈哈,咋整?
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找一下腾讯的源试一下,当然了先删除一下阿里的源:

rm -rf /etc/yum.repos.d/docker-ce.repo
yum clean all

https://mirrors.cloud.tencent.com/docker-ce/linux/centos/
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dnf install dnf-utils device-mapper-persistent-data lvm2
yum-config-manager --add-repo http://mirrors.cloud.tencent.com/docker-ce/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo
sudo yum update -y && sudo yum install -y containerd.io
containerd config default > /etc/containerd/config.toml
# 替换 containerd 默认的 sand_box 镜像,编辑 /etc/containerd/config.toml

sandbox_image = "registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/pause:3.2"

# 重启containerd
$ systemctl daemon-reload
$ systemctl restart containerd

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依然如此.......没有自己匹配一下系统啊....咋整?手动修改一下?
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成功了,这里也希望tencentos能够自己支持一下常用的yum源...别让我手动转换啊
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containerd config default > /etc/containerd/config.toml

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# 重启containerd
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl restart containerd
systemctl status containerd

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10. 配置 CRI 客户端 crictl

注:貌似有版本匹配的

VERSION="v1.22.0"
wget https://github.com/kubernetes-sigs/cri-tools/releases/download/$VERSION/crictl-$VERSION-linux-amd64.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf crictl-$VERSION-linux-amd64.tar.gz -C /usr/local/bin
rm -f crictl-$VERSION-linux-amd64.tar.gz

也可能下不动,github下载到桌面,手动上传吧....

cat <<EOF > /etc/crictl.yaml
runtime-endpoint: unix:///run/containerd/containerd.sock
image-endpoint: unix:///run/containerd/containerd.sock
timeout: 10
debug: false
EOF

# 验证是否可用(可以顺便验证一下私有仓库)
crictl  pull nginx:alpine
crictl  rmi  nginx:alpine
crictl  images

嗯 修改一下/etc/containerd/config.toml 中[plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".registry.mirrors."docker.io"]endpoint为阿里云的加速器地址(当然 了也可以是其他加速器的),另外, [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".containerd.runtimes.runc.options]也添加了SystemdCgroup = true
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endpoint 更换为阿里云加速器地址:https://2lefsjdg.mirror.aliyuncs.com
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重启containerd服务重新下载镜像验证:

systemctl restart containerd.service
crictl  pull nginx:alpine

OK
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11. 安装 Kubeadm(centos8没有对应yum源使用centos7的阿里云yum源)

注:为什么安装1.21.3版本呢?因为我线上的也是1.21.3版本的。正好到时候测试一下升级

cat <<EOF > /etc/yum.repos.d/kubernetes.repo
[kubernetes]
name=Kubernetes
baseurl=http://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/repos/kubernetes-el7-x86_64
enabled=1
gpgcheck=0
repo_gpgcheck=0
gpgkey=http://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg http://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/rpm-package-key.gpg
EOF
# 删除旧版本,如果安装了
yum remove kubeadm kubectl kubelet kubernetes-cni cri-tools socat 
# 查看所有可安装版本 下面两个都可以啊
# yum list --showduplicates kubeadm --disableexcludes=kubernetes
# 安装指定版本用下面的命令
# yum -y install kubeadm-1.21.3 kubectl-1.21.3 kubelet-1.21.3
or 
# 安装默认最新稳定版本,当前版本1.22.4
#yum install -y kubelet kubeadm kubectl --disableexcludes=kubernetes

# 开机自启
systemctl enable kubelet.service

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当然了,这里也可以直接使用腾讯云的源了....道理一样。

12. 修改kubelet配置

vi /etc/sysconfig/kubelet
KUBELET_EXTRA_ARGS= --cgroup-driver=systemd --container-runtime=remote --container-runtime-endpoint=/run/containerd/containerd.sock

master节点额外操作:

1. 安装haproxy

注:三台master节点都要安装haproxy,以及相关配置......

yum install haproxy
cat <<EOF >  /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
# Example configuration for a possible web application.  See the
# full configuration options online.
#
#   http://haproxy.1wt.eu/download/1.4/doc/configuration.txt
#
#---------------------------------------------------------------------

#---------------------------------------------------------------------
# Global settings
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
global
    # to have these messages end up in /var/log/haproxy.log you will
    # need to:
    #
    # 1) configure syslog to accept network log events.  This is done
    #    by adding the '-r' option to the SYSLOGD_OPTIONS in
    #    /etc/sysconfig/syslog
    #
    # 2) configure local2 events to go to the /var/log/haproxy.log
    #   file. A line like the following can be added to
    #   /etc/sysconfig/syslog
    #
    #    local2.*                       /var/log/haproxy.log
    #
    log         127.0.0.1 local2

    chroot      /var/lib/haproxy
    pidfile     /var/run/haproxy.pid
    maxconn     4000
    user        haproxy
    group       haproxy
    daemon

    # turn on stats unix socket
    stats socket /var/lib/haproxy/stats

#---------------------------------------------------------------------
# common defaults that all the 'listen' and 'backend' sections will
# use if not designated in their block
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
defaults
    mode                    tcp
    log                     global
    option                  tcplog
    option                  dontlognull
    option http-server-close
    option forwardfor       except 127.0.0.0/8
    option                  redispatch
    retries                 3
    timeout http-request    10s
    timeout queue           1m
    timeout connect         10s
    timeout client          1m
    timeout server          1m
    timeout http-keep-alive 10s
    timeout check           10s
    maxconn                 3000

#---------------------------------------------------------------------
# main frontend which proxys to the backends
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
frontend kubernetes
    bind *:8443              #配置端口为8443
    mode tcp
    default_backend kubernetes
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
# static backend for serving up images, stylesheets and such
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
backend kubernetes           #后端服务器,也就是说访问10.3.2.12:6443会将请求转发到后端的三台,这样就实现了负载均衡
    balance roundrobin               
    server master1  10.10.2.8:6443 check maxconn 2000
    server master2  10.10.2.10:6443 check maxconn 2000
    server master3  10.10.5.4:6443 check maxconn 2000
EOF
 systemctl enable haproxy && systemctl start haproxy && systemctl status haproxy

登陆腾讯云负载均衡管理后台:https://console.cloud.tencent.com/clb,创建TCP监听器命名k8s监听6443端口,后端服务绑定三台master节点 8443端口,权重默认10没有修改。
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2. sh-master-01节点生成配置文件

注:当然了 也可以是sh-master-02 or sh-master-03节点

kubeadm config print init-defaults > config.yaml

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修改一下配置文件如下:

apiVersion: kubeadm.k8s.io/v1beta2
bootstrapTokens:
- groups:
  - system:bootstrappers:kubeadm:default-node-token
  token: abcdef.0123456789abcdef
  ttl: 24h0m0s
  usages:
  - signing
  - authentication
kind: InitConfiguration
localAPIEndpoint:
  advertiseAddress: 10.10.2.8
  bindPort: 6443
nodeRegistration:
  criSocket: /run/containerd/containerd.sock
  name: sh-master-01
  taints:
  - effect: NoSchedule
    key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master
---
apiServer:
  timeoutForControlPlane: 4m0s
  certSANs:
  - sh-master-01
  - sh-master-02
  - sh-master-03
  - sh-master.k8s.io
  - localhost
  - 127.0.0.1
  - 10.10.2.8
  - 10.10.2.10
  - 10.10.5.4
  - 10.10.2.4
  - xx.xx.xx.xx
apiVersion: kubeadm.k8s.io/v1beta2
certificatesDir: /etc/kubernetes/pki
clusterName: kubernetes
controlPlaneEndpoint: "10.10.2.4:6443"
controllerManager: {}
dns:
  type: CoreDNS
etcd:
  local:
    dataDir: /var/lib/etcd
imageRepository: registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers
kind: ClusterConfiguration
kubernetesVersion: 1.21.3
networking:
  dnsDomain: cluster.local
  serviceSubnet: 172.31.0.0/16
scheduler: {}
---
apiVersion: kubeproxy.config.k8s.io/v1alpha1
kind: KubeProxyConfiguration
mode: ipvs
ipvs:
  excludeCIDRs: null
  minSyncPeriod: 0s
  scheduler: "rr"
  strictARP: false
  syncPeriod: 15s
iptables:
  masqueradeAll: true
  masqueradeBit: 14
  minSyncPeriod: 0s
  syncPeriod: 30s

增加了ipvs的配置,指定了service的subnet,还有国内的镜像仓库,xx.xx.xx.xx是我预留了一个ip(可以预留ip的,方便以后扩容主节点起码)

3. kubeadm master-01节点初始化

kubeadm init --config /root/config.yaml

注:下面截图跟上面命令不匹配,因为我开始想安装cilium来...结果失败了哈哈哈还是先搞一下calico吧
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嗯 优化系统参数的时候没有搞上net.ipv4.ip_forward 强调一下,sysctl -w是临时的哦

sysctl -w net.ipv4.ip_forward=1

长久的还是再配置文件中加一下:

cat <<EOF > /etc/sysctl.d/99-sysctl.conf
fs.file-max=1000000
net.ipv4.tcp_max_tw_buckets = 6000
net.ipv4.tcp_sack = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_window_scaling = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096 87380 4194304
net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096 16384 4194304
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 16384
net.core.netdev_max_backlog = 32768
net.core.somaxconn = 32768
net.core.wmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_max = 16777216
net.core.wmem_max = 16777216
net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 20
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_syn_retries = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
#net.ipv4.tcp_tw_len = 1
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 94500000 915000000 927000000
net.ipv4.tcp_max_orphans = 3276800
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65000
net.nf_conntrack_max = 6553500
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_max = 6553500
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_tcp_timeout_close_wait = 60
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_tcp_timeout_fin_wait = 120
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_tcp_timeout_time_wait = 120
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_tcp_timeout_established = 3600
EOF

sysctl --system

注:所有节点执行

kubeadm init --config /root/config.yaml 

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4. sh-master-02,sh-master-03控制平面节点加入集群

mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
mkdir -p $HOME/.kube  sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

按照输出sh-master-02 ,sh-master-03节点加入集群
将sh-master-01 /etc/kubernetes/pki目录下ca.* sa.* front-proxy-ca.* etcd/ca* 打包分发到sh-master-02,sh-master-03 /etc/kubernetes/pki目录下 
kubeadm join 10.10.2.4:6443 --token abcdef.0123456789abcdef --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:ccfd4e2b85a6a07fde8580422769c9e14113e8f05e95272e51cca2f13b0eb8c3 --control-plan
然后同sh-master-01一样执行一遍下面的命令:
mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
sudo \cp /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

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kubectl get nodes

嗯 由于没有安装cni 网络插件都是notready状态。
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work节点加入集群

 kubeadm join 10.10.2.4:6443 --token abcdef.0123456789abcdef --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:ccfd4e2b85a6a07fde8580422769c9e14113e8f05e95272e51cca2f13b0eb8c3

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首先cnn管理控制台先购买了1Mbps的带宽,毕竟是做一下测试:

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安装cni网络插件

初步先跑一下简单的calico了(搞flannel cilium开始没有整起来。先跑通一个算一个。其他的后面慢慢学习优化)

curl https://docs.projectcalico.org/v3.11/manifests/calico.yaml -O
sed -i -e "s?192.168.0.0/16?172.31.0.0/16?g" calico.yaml
kubectl apply -f calico.yaml 
kubectl get pods -o kube-system -o wide

befb0f85e1a67cc4c9e4789ee0d6a0e.png
注: 我还额外在腾讯云私有网络控制台添加了辅助cidr,我在想这样的话我跟其他区域的容器网络是不是也可以互通?还没有测试....就是想起来添加一下了:
[

](https://console.cloud.tencent...)
43d6efd8a12b380b54a703c1b8eb94c.png

做一下简单的ping测试:

1. 上海区部署两个pod

cat<<EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: nginx
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: nginx
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: nginx
    spec:
      containers:
      - image: nginx:alpine
        name: nginx
        ports:
        - containerPort: 80
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: nginx
spec:
  selector:
    app: nginx
  ports:
    - protocol: TCP
      port: 80
      targetPort: 80
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: busybox
  namespace: default
spec:
  containers:
  - name: busybox
    image: busybox:1.28.4
    command:
      - sleep
      - "3600"
    imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
  restartPolicy: Always
EOF

嗯 都跑在了上海区

[root@sh-master-01 ~]# kubectl get pods -o wide
NAME                     READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE   IP              NODE         NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
busybox                  1/1     Running   14         14h   172.31.45.132   sh-work-01   <none>           <none>
nginx-7fb7fd49b4-zrg77   1/1     Running   0          14h   172.31.45.131   sh-work-01   <none>           <none>

2. nodeSelector调度在北京区启动一个pod

然后我还想启动一个pod运行在北京区,怎么搞?偷个懒 打标签,nodeSelector调度吧!

kubectl label node bj-work-01  zone=beijing

cat nginx1.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: null
  labels:
    run: nginx1
  name: nginx1
spec:
  nodeSelector:              #将pod部署到指定标签为zone 为beijing的节点上
    zone: "beijing"
  containers:
  - image: nginx
    name: nginx1
    resources: {}
  dnsPolicy: ClusterFirst
  restartPolicy: Always
status: {}
kubectl apply -f nginx1.yaml
[root@sh-master-01 ~]# kubectl get pods -o wide
NAME                     READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE   IP              NODE         NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
busybox                  1/1     Running   14         14h   172.31.45.132   sh-work-01   <none>           <none>
nginx-7fb7fd49b4-zrg77   1/1     Running   0          14h   172.31.45.131   sh-work-01   <none>           <none>
nginx1                   1/1     Running   0          14h   172.31.89.194   bj-work-01   <none>           <none>

3. ping 测试

在sh-master-02节点ping 北京pod 与上海pod的ping值
9fc0b6f20ca3ea032dcbe395ff4400e.pngexec 上海的pod ping 上海与北京的pod的ping值
e67000cb2465de6855ca01e33c6529e.png
基本都是差不多的样子。主要是想验证一下是否可以跨区域vpc去搭建kubernetes集群的可行性。网络质量什么的还没有想好怎么测试。只是抛砖引玉。云上是很大程度上方便了许多。起码bgp什么的配置的都相对省略了。如果有云上跨区域搭建kubernetes集群的可以参考一下。

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