聊聊hikari连接池的idleTimeout及minimumIdle属性

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本文主要研究一个hikari连接池的idleTimeout及minimumIdle属性

idleTimeout

默认是600000毫秒,即10分钟。如果idleTimeout+1秒>maxLifetime 且 maxLifetime>0,则会被重置为0;如果idleTimeout!=0且小于10秒,则会被重置为10秒。如果idleTimeout=0则表示空闲的连接在连接池中永远不被移除。

只有当minimumIdle小于maximumPoolSize时,这个参数才生效,当空闲连接数超过minimumIdle,而且空闲时间超过idleTimeout,则会被移除。

minimumIdle

控制连接池空闲连接的最小数量,当连接池空闲连接少于minimumIdle,而且总共连接数不大于maximumPoolSize时,HikariCP会尽力补充新的连接。为了性能考虑,不建议设置此值,而是让HikariCP把连接池当做固定大小的处理,默认minimumIdle与maximumPoolSize一样。

当minIdle<0或者minIdle>maxPoolSize,则被重置为maxPoolSize,该值默认为10。

HikariPool.HouseKeeper

HikariCP-2.7.6-sources.jar!/com/zaxxer/hikari/pool/HikariPool.java

    private final long HOUSEKEEPING_PERIOD_MS = Long.getLong("com.zaxxer.hikari.housekeeping.periodMs", SECONDS.toMillis(30));

    this.houseKeeperTask = houseKeepingExecutorService.scheduleWithFixedDelay(new HouseKeeper(), 100L, HOUSEKEEPING_PERIOD_MS, MILLISECONDS);

   /**
    * The house keeping task to retire and maintain minimum idle connections.
    */
   private final class HouseKeeper implements Runnable
   {
      private volatile long previous = plusMillis(currentTime(), -HOUSEKEEPING_PERIOD_MS);

      @Override
      public void run()
      {
         try {
            // refresh timeouts in case they changed via MBean
            connectionTimeout = config.getConnectionTimeout();
            validationTimeout = config.getValidationTimeout();
            leakTaskFactory.updateLeakDetectionThreshold(config.getLeakDetectionThreshold());

            final long idleTimeout = config.getIdleTimeout();
            final long now = currentTime();

            // Detect retrograde time, allowing +128ms as per NTP spec.
            if (plusMillis(now, 128) < plusMillis(previous, HOUSEKEEPING_PERIOD_MS)) {
               LOGGER.warn("{} - Retrograde clock change detected (housekeeper delta={}), soft-evicting connections from pool.",
                           poolName, elapsedDisplayString(previous, now));
               previous = now;
               softEvictConnections();
               return;
            }
            else if (now > plusMillis(previous, (3 * HOUSEKEEPING_PERIOD_MS) / 2)) {
               // No point evicting for forward clock motion, this merely accelerates connection retirement anyway
               LOGGER.warn("{} - Thread starvation or clock leap detected (housekeeper delta={}).", poolName, elapsedDisplayString(previous, now));
            }

            previous = now;

            String afterPrefix = "Pool ";
            if (idleTimeout > 0L && config.getMinimumIdle() < config.getMaximumPoolSize()) {
               logPoolState("Before cleanup ");
               afterPrefix = "After cleanup  ";

               final List<PoolEntry> notInUse = connectionBag.values(STATE_NOT_IN_USE);
               int toRemove = notInUse.size() - config.getMinimumIdle();
               for (PoolEntry entry : notInUse) {
                  if (toRemove > 0 && elapsedMillis(entry.lastAccessed, now) > idleTimeout && connectionBag.reserve(entry)) {
                     closeConnection(entry, "(connection has passed idleTimeout)");
                     toRemove--;
                  }
               }
            }

            logPoolState(afterPrefix);

            fillPool(); // Try to maintain minimum connections
         }
         catch (Exception e) {
            LOGGER.error("Unexpected exception in housekeeping task", e);
         }
      }
   }
这个HouseKeeper是一个定时任务,在HikariPool构造器里头初始化,默认的是初始化后100毫秒执行,之后每执行完一次之后隔HOUSEKEEPING_PERIOD_MS(30秒)时间执行。
这个定时任务的作用就是根据idleTimeout的值,移除掉空闲超时的连接。
首先检测时钟是否倒退,如果倒退了则立即对过期的连接进行标记evict;之后当idleTimeout>0且配置的minimumIdle<maximumPoolSize时才开始处理超时的空闲连接。
取出状态是STATE_NOT_IN_USE的连接数,如果大于minimumIdle,则遍历STATE_NOT_IN_USE的连接的连接,将空闲超时达到idleTimeout的连接从connectionBag移除掉,若移除成功则关闭该连接,然后toRemove--。
在空闲连接移除之后,再调用fillPool,尝试补充空间连接数到minimumIdle值

HikariPool.fillPool

HikariCP-2.7.6-sources.jar!/com/zaxxer/hikari/pool/HikariPool.java

         private final PoolEntryCreator POOL_ENTRY_CREATOR = new PoolEntryCreator(null /*logging prefix*/);
      private final PoolEntryCreator POST_FILL_POOL_ENTRY_CREATOR = new PoolEntryCreator("After adding ");
      LinkedBlockingQueue<Runnable> addConnectionQueue = new LinkedBlockingQueue<>(config.getMaximumPoolSize());
      this.addConnectionQueue = unmodifiableCollection(addConnectionQueue);
      this.addConnectionExecutor = createThreadPoolExecutor(addConnectionQueue, poolName + " connection adder", threadFactory, new ThreadPoolExecutor.DiscardPolicy());

   /**
    * Fill pool up from current idle connections (as they are perceived at the point of execution) to minimumIdle connections.
    */
   private synchronized void fillPool()
   {
      final int connectionsToAdd = Math.min(config.getMaximumPoolSize() - getTotalConnections(), config.getMinimumIdle() - getIdleConnections())
                                   - addConnectionQueue.size();
      for (int i = 0; i < connectionsToAdd; i++) {
         addConnectionExecutor.submit((i < connectionsToAdd - 1) ? POOL_ENTRY_CREATOR : POST_FILL_POOL_ENTRY_CREATOR);
      }
   }

PoolEntryCreator

   /**
    * Creating and adding poolEntries (connections) to the pool.
    */
   private final class PoolEntryCreator implements Callable<Boolean>
   {
      private final String loggingPrefix;

      PoolEntryCreator(String loggingPrefix)
      {
         this.loggingPrefix = loggingPrefix;
      }

      @Override
      public Boolean call() throws Exception
      {
         long sleepBackoff = 250L;
         while (poolState == POOL_NORMAL && shouldCreateAnotherConnection()) {
            final PoolEntry poolEntry = createPoolEntry();
            if (poolEntry != null) {
               connectionBag.add(poolEntry);
               LOGGER.debug("{} - Added connection {}", poolName, poolEntry.connection);
               if (loggingPrefix != null) {
                  logPoolState(loggingPrefix);
               }
               return Boolean.TRUE;
            }

            // failed to get connection from db, sleep and retry
            quietlySleep(sleepBackoff);
            sleepBackoff = Math.min(SECONDS.toMillis(10), Math.min(connectionTimeout, (long) (sleepBackoff * 1.5)));
         }
         // Pool is suspended or shutdown or at max size
         return Boolean.FALSE;
      }

      /**
       * We only create connections if we need another idle connection or have threads still waiting
       * for a new connection.  Otherwise we bail out of the request to create.
       *
       * @return true if we should create a connection, false if the need has disappeared
       */
      private boolean shouldCreateAnotherConnection() {
         return getTotalConnections() < config.getMaximumPoolSize() &&
            (connectionBag.getWaitingThreadCount() > 0 || getIdleConnections() < config.getMinimumIdle());
      }
   }
shouldCreateAnotherConnection方法决定了是否需要添加新的连接

createPoolEntry

   /**
    * Creating new poolEntry.  If maxLifetime is configured, create a future End-of-life task with 2.5% variance from
    * the maxLifetime time to ensure there is no massive die-off of Connections in the pool.
    */
   private PoolEntry createPoolEntry()
   {
      try {
         final PoolEntry poolEntry = newPoolEntry();

         final long maxLifetime = config.getMaxLifetime();
         if (maxLifetime > 0) {
            // variance up to 2.5% of the maxlifetime
            final long variance = maxLifetime > 10_000 ? ThreadLocalRandom.current().nextLong( maxLifetime / 40 ) : 0;
            final long lifetime = maxLifetime - variance;
            poolEntry.setFutureEol(houseKeepingExecutorService.schedule(
               () -> {
                  if (softEvictConnection(poolEntry, "(connection has passed maxLifetime)", false /* not owner */)) {
                     addBagItem(connectionBag.getWaitingThreadCount());
                  }
               },
               lifetime, MILLISECONDS));
         }

         return poolEntry;
      }
      catch (Exception e) {
         if (poolState == POOL_NORMAL) { // we check POOL_NORMAL to avoid a flood of messages if shutdown() is running concurrently
            LOGGER.debug("{} - Cannot acquire connection from data source", poolName, (e instanceof ConnectionSetupException ? e.getCause() : e));
         }
         return null;
      }
   }
createPoolEntry方法创建一个poolEntry,同时给它的lifetime过期设定了一个延时任务。

小结

  • HouseKeeper是一个定时任务,在HikariPool构造器里头初始化,默认的是初始化后100毫秒执行,之后每执行完一次之后隔HOUSEKEEPING_PERIOD_MS(30秒)时间执行。
  • 如果发现时钟倒退,则立即标记evict连接,然后退出;否则都会执行fillPool,来试图维持空闲连接到minimumIdle的数值
  • 当idleTimeout>0且配置的minimumIdle<maximumPoolSize时,会移除超过idleTimeout的空闲连接,否则不做操作,继续往下执行fillPool
  • 当minIdle<0或者minIdle>maxPoolSize,则minIdle被重置为maxPoolSize,该值默认为10,官方建议设置为一致,当做固定大小的连接池处理提高性能
idleTimeout有点类似tomcat jdbc pool里头的min-evictable-idle-time-millis参数。不同的是tomcat jdbc pool的连接泄露检测以及空闲连接清除的工作都放在一个名为PoolCleaner的timerTask中处理,该任务的执行间隔为timeBetweenEvictionRunsMillis,默认为5秒;而hikari的连接泄露是每次getConnection的时候单独触发一个延时任务来处理,而空闲连接的清除则是使用HouseKeeper定时任务来处理,其运行间隔由com.zaxxer.hikari.housekeeping.periodMs环境变量控制,默认为30秒。

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