聊聊hikari连接池的fixed pool design

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本文主要研究一下hikari连接池的fixed pool design

fixed pool design

hikari的作者比较倾向于fixed pool design的理念,即建议minimumIdle与maximumPoolSize设置成一样,当做固定连接大小的连接池。作者认为minimumIdle小于maximumPoolSize的话,在流量激增的时候需要额外的连接,此时在请求方法里头再去处理新建连接会造成性能损失,即会导致数据库一方面降低连接建立的速度,另一方面也会影响既有的连接事务的完成,间接影响了这些既有连接归还到连接池的速度。

作者认为minimumIdle与maximumPoolSize设置成一样,多余的空闲连接不会对整体的性能有什么严重影响,如果说设置minimumIdle小于maximumPoolSize是为了在必要的时候可以释放连接以释放内存给其他功能用,但是在高峰时期,连接池可能也会到达maximumPoolSize,因而这个目的似乎没起到效果。

HikariPool.houseKeeperTask

HikariCP-2.7.6-sources.jar!/com/zaxxer/hikari/pool/HikariPool.java

   private final long HOUSEKEEPING_PERIOD_MS = Long.getLong("com.zaxxer.hikari.housekeeping.periodMs", SECONDS.toMillis(30));

   /**
    * Construct a HikariPool with the specified configuration.
    *
    * @param config a HikariConfig instance
    */
   public HikariPool(final HikariConfig config)
   {
      super(config);

      this.connectionBag = new ConcurrentBag<>(this);
      this.suspendResumeLock = config.isAllowPoolSuspension() ? new SuspendResumeLock() : SuspendResumeLock.FAUX_LOCK;

      this.houseKeepingExecutorService = initializeHouseKeepingExecutorService();

      checkFailFast();

      if (config.getMetricsTrackerFactory() != null) {
         setMetricsTrackerFactory(config.getMetricsTrackerFactory());
      }
      else {
         setMetricRegistry(config.getMetricRegistry());
      }

      setHealthCheckRegistry(config.getHealthCheckRegistry());

      registerMBeans(this);

      ThreadFactory threadFactory = config.getThreadFactory();

      LinkedBlockingQueue<Runnable> addConnectionQueue = new LinkedBlockingQueue<>(config.getMaximumPoolSize());
      this.addConnectionQueue = unmodifiableCollection(addConnectionQueue);
      this.addConnectionExecutor = createThreadPoolExecutor(addConnectionQueue, poolName + " connection adder", threadFactory, new ThreadPoolExecutor.DiscardPolicy());
      this.closeConnectionExecutor = createThreadPoolExecutor(config.getMaximumPoolSize(), poolName + " connection closer", threadFactory, new ThreadPoolExecutor.CallerRunsPolicy());

      this.leakTaskFactory = new ProxyLeakTaskFactory(config.getLeakDetectionThreshold(), houseKeepingExecutorService);

      this.houseKeeperTask = houseKeepingExecutorService.scheduleWithFixedDelay(new HouseKeeper(), 100L, HOUSEKEEPING_PERIOD_MS, MILLISECONDS);
   }
在初始化HikariPool的时候会初始化houseKeeperTask

HikariPool.HouseKeeper

HikariCP-2.7.6-sources.jar!/com/zaxxer/hikari/pool/HikariPool.java

   /**
    * The house keeping task to retire and maintain minimum idle connections.
    */
   private final class HouseKeeper implements Runnable
   {
      private volatile long previous = plusMillis(currentTime(), -HOUSEKEEPING_PERIOD_MS);

      @Override
      public void run()
      {
         try {
            // refresh timeouts in case they changed via MBean
            connectionTimeout = config.getConnectionTimeout();
            validationTimeout = config.getValidationTimeout();
            leakTaskFactory.updateLeakDetectionThreshold(config.getLeakDetectionThreshold());

            final long idleTimeout = config.getIdleTimeout();
            final long now = currentTime();

            // Detect retrograde time, allowing +128ms as per NTP spec.
            if (plusMillis(now, 128) < plusMillis(previous, HOUSEKEEPING_PERIOD_MS)) {
               LOGGER.warn("{} - Retrograde clock change detected (housekeeper delta={}), soft-evicting connections from pool.",
                           poolName, elapsedDisplayString(previous, now));
               previous = now;
               softEvictConnections();
               return;
            }
            else if (now > plusMillis(previous, (3 * HOUSEKEEPING_PERIOD_MS) / 2)) {
               // No point evicting for forward clock motion, this merely accelerates connection retirement anyway
               LOGGER.warn("{} - Thread starvation or clock leap detected (housekeeper delta={}).", poolName, elapsedDisplayString(previous, now));
            }

            previous = now;

            String afterPrefix = "Pool ";
            if (idleTimeout > 0L && config.getMinimumIdle() < config.getMaximumPoolSize()) {
               logPoolState("Before cleanup ");
               afterPrefix = "After cleanup  ";

               final List<PoolEntry> notInUse = connectionBag.values(STATE_NOT_IN_USE);
               int toRemove = notInUse.size() - config.getMinimumIdle();
               for (PoolEntry entry : notInUse) {
                  if (toRemove > 0 && elapsedMillis(entry.lastAccessed, now) > idleTimeout && connectionBag.reserve(entry)) {
                     closeConnection(entry, "(connection has passed idleTimeout)");
                     toRemove--;
                  }
               }
            }

            logPoolState(afterPrefix);

            fillPool(); // Try to maintain minimum connections
         }
         catch (Exception e) {
            LOGGER.error("Unexpected exception in housekeeping task", e);
         }
      }
   }
假设minimumIdle与maximumPoolSize设置成一样,那么这个task在第一次执行的时候,直接执行fillPool

fillPool

   /**
    * Fill pool up from current idle connections (as they are perceived at the point of execution) to minimumIdle connections.
    */
   private synchronized void fillPool()
   {
      final int connectionsToAdd = Math.min(config.getMaximumPoolSize() - getTotalConnections(), config.getMinimumIdle() - getIdleConnections())
                                   - addConnectionQueue.size();
      for (int i = 0; i < connectionsToAdd; i++) {
         addConnectionExecutor.submit((i < connectionsToAdd - 1) ? POOL_ENTRY_CREATOR : POST_FILL_POOL_ENTRY_CREATOR);
      }
   }
这个fillPool,在初始化时刻,minimumIdle与maximumPoolSize值一样,totalConnections与idleConnections都为0,那么connectionsToAdd的值就是maximumPoolSize
也就是说这个task会添加maximumPoolSize大小连接

小结

  • tomcat jdbc pool
有个initial-size参数来指定最开始的时候初始化多少个连接,有min-idle及max-idle来控制空闲连接的最小值及最大值,有max-active来控制连接池总大小。min-evictable-idle-time-millis用来指定空闲连接的时长,time-between-eviction-runs-millis用来指定清理空闲连接的任务的调度时间间隔。
  • hikari connection pool
有minIdle来指定空闲连接的最小数量,maxPoolSize指定连接池连接最大值,默认初始化的时候,是初始化minIdle大小的连接,如果minIdle与maxPoolSize值相等那就是初始化时把连接池填满。idleTimeout用来指定空闲连接的时长,maxLifetime用来指定所有连接的时长。com.zaxxer.hikari.housekeeping.periodMs用来指定连接池空闲连接处理及连接池数补充的HouseKeeper任务的调度时间间隔。

也就是说hikari比tomcat jdbc pool多了个maxLifetime,也就是所有的连接在maxLifetime之后都得重连一次,保证连接池的活性。

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