聊聊flink的JDBCOutputFormat

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本文主要研究一下flink的JDBCOutputFormat

JDBCOutputFormat

flink-jdbc_2.11-1.7.0-sources.jar!/org/apache/flink/api/java/io/jdbc/JDBCOutputFormat.java

/**
 * OutputFormat to write Rows into a JDBC database.
 * The OutputFormat has to be configured using the supplied OutputFormatBuilder.
 *
 * @see Row
 * @see DriverManager
 */
public class JDBCOutputFormat extends RichOutputFormat<Row> {
    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
    static final int DEFAULT_BATCH_INTERVAL = 5000;

    private static final Logger LOG = LoggerFactory.getLogger(JDBCOutputFormat.class);

    private String username;
    private String password;
    private String drivername;
    private String dbURL;
    private String query;
    private int batchInterval = DEFAULT_BATCH_INTERVAL;

    private Connection dbConn;
    private PreparedStatement upload;

    private int batchCount = 0;

    private int[] typesArray;

    public JDBCOutputFormat() {
    }

    @Override
    public void configure(Configuration parameters) {
    }

    /**
     * Connects to the target database and initializes the prepared statement.
     *
     * @param taskNumber The number of the parallel instance.
     * @throws IOException Thrown, if the output could not be opened due to an
     * I/O problem.
     */
    @Override
    public void open(int taskNumber, int numTasks) throws IOException {
        try {
            establishConnection();
            upload = dbConn.prepareStatement(query);
        } catch (SQLException sqe) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("open() failed.", sqe);
        } catch (ClassNotFoundException cnfe) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("JDBC driver class not found.", cnfe);
        }
    }

    private void establishConnection() throws SQLException, ClassNotFoundException {
        Class.forName(drivername);
        if (username == null) {
            dbConn = DriverManager.getConnection(dbURL);
        } else {
            dbConn = DriverManager.getConnection(dbURL, username, password);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Adds a record to the prepared statement.
     *
     * <p>When this method is called, the output format is guaranteed to be opened.
     *
     * <p>WARNING: this may fail when no column types specified (because a best effort approach is attempted in order to
     * insert a null value but it's not guaranteed that the JDBC driver handles PreparedStatement.setObject(pos, null))
     *
     * @param row The records to add to the output.
     * @see PreparedStatement
     * @throws IOException Thrown, if the records could not be added due to an I/O problem.
     */
    @Override
    public void writeRecord(Row row) throws IOException {

        if (typesArray != null && typesArray.length > 0 && typesArray.length != row.getArity()) {
            LOG.warn("Column SQL types array doesn't match arity of passed Row! Check the passed array...");
        }
        try {

            if (typesArray == null) {
                // no types provided
                for (int index = 0; index < row.getArity(); index++) {
                    LOG.warn("Unknown column type for column {}. Best effort approach to set its value: {}.", index + 1, row.getField(index));
                    upload.setObject(index + 1, row.getField(index));
                }
            } else {
                // types provided
                for (int index = 0; index < row.getArity(); index++) {

                    if (row.getField(index) == null) {
                        upload.setNull(index + 1, typesArray[index]);
                    } else {
                        // casting values as suggested by http://docs.oracle.com/javase/1.5.0/docs/guide/jdbc/getstart/mapping.html
                        switch (typesArray[index]) {
                            case java.sql.Types.NULL:
                                upload.setNull(index + 1, typesArray[index]);
                                break;
                            case java.sql.Types.BOOLEAN:
                            case java.sql.Types.BIT:
                                upload.setBoolean(index + 1, (boolean) row.getField(index));
                                break;
                            case java.sql.Types.CHAR:
                            case java.sql.Types.NCHAR:
                            case java.sql.Types.VARCHAR:
                            case java.sql.Types.LONGVARCHAR:
                            case java.sql.Types.LONGNVARCHAR:
                                upload.setString(index + 1, (String) row.getField(index));
                                break;
                            case java.sql.Types.TINYINT:
                                upload.setByte(index + 1, (byte) row.getField(index));
                                break;
                            case java.sql.Types.SMALLINT:
                                upload.setShort(index + 1, (short) row.getField(index));
                                break;
                            case java.sql.Types.INTEGER:
                                upload.setInt(index + 1, (int) row.getField(index));
                                break;
                            case java.sql.Types.BIGINT:
                                upload.setLong(index + 1, (long) row.getField(index));
                                break;
                            case java.sql.Types.REAL:
                                upload.setFloat(index + 1, (float) row.getField(index));
                                break;
                            case java.sql.Types.FLOAT:
                            case java.sql.Types.DOUBLE:
                                upload.setDouble(index + 1, (double) row.getField(index));
                                break;
                            case java.sql.Types.DECIMAL:
                            case java.sql.Types.NUMERIC:
                                upload.setBigDecimal(index + 1, (java.math.BigDecimal) row.getField(index));
                                break;
                            case java.sql.Types.DATE:
                                upload.setDate(index + 1, (java.sql.Date) row.getField(index));
                                break;
                            case java.sql.Types.TIME:
                                upload.setTime(index + 1, (java.sql.Time) row.getField(index));
                                break;
                            case java.sql.Types.TIMESTAMP:
                                upload.setTimestamp(index + 1, (java.sql.Timestamp) row.getField(index));
                                break;
                            case java.sql.Types.BINARY:
                            case java.sql.Types.VARBINARY:
                            case java.sql.Types.LONGVARBINARY:
                                upload.setBytes(index + 1, (byte[]) row.getField(index));
                                break;
                            default:
                                upload.setObject(index + 1, row.getField(index));
                                LOG.warn("Unmanaged sql type ({}) for column {}. Best effort approach to set its value: {}.",
                                    typesArray[index], index + 1, row.getField(index));
                                // case java.sql.Types.SQLXML
                                // case java.sql.Types.ARRAY:
                                // case java.sql.Types.JAVA_OBJECT:
                                // case java.sql.Types.BLOB:
                                // case java.sql.Types.CLOB:
                                // case java.sql.Types.NCLOB:
                                // case java.sql.Types.DATALINK:
                                // case java.sql.Types.DISTINCT:
                                // case java.sql.Types.OTHER:
                                // case java.sql.Types.REF:
                                // case java.sql.Types.ROWID:
                                // case java.sql.Types.STRUC
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
            upload.addBatch();
            batchCount++;
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException("Preparation of JDBC statement failed.", e);
        }

        if (batchCount >= batchInterval) {
            // execute batch
            flush();
        }
    }

    void flush() {
        try {
            upload.executeBatch();
            batchCount = 0;
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException("Execution of JDBC statement failed.", e);
        }
    }

    int[] getTypesArray() {
        return typesArray;
    }

    /**
     * Executes prepared statement and closes all resources of this instance.
     *
     * @throws IOException Thrown, if the input could not be closed properly.
     */
    @Override
    public void close() throws IOException {
        if (upload != null) {
            flush();
            // close the connection
            try {
                upload.close();
            } catch (SQLException e) {
                LOG.info("JDBC statement could not be closed: " + e.getMessage());
            } finally {
                upload = null;
            }
        }

        if (dbConn != null) {
            try {
                dbConn.close();
            } catch (SQLException se) {
                LOG.info("JDBC connection could not be closed: " + se.getMessage());
            } finally {
                dbConn = null;
            }
        }
    }

    public static JDBCOutputFormatBuilder buildJDBCOutputFormat() {
        return new JDBCOutputFormatBuilder();
    }

    //......
}
  • JDBCOutputFormat继承了RichOutputFormat,这里的泛型为org.apache.flink.types.Row
  • open的时候调用了establishConnection来加载驱动,初始化dbConn,然后调用dbConn.prepareStatement(query)来获取upload(PreparedStatement)
  • writeRecord方法先判断是否有提供typesArray,没有的话则使用setObject来设置值,有点话则根据对应的类型进行转换,这里支持了多种java.sql.Types里头的类型
  • writeRecord采取的是PreparedStatement.addBatch操作,当batchCount大于等于batchInterval(默认5000),会执行flush操作,也就是调用PreparedStatement.executeBatch方法,然后重置batchCount;为了以防数据没达到batchInterval而未能提交,在close的时候会再次执行flush操作,然后才关闭PreparedStatement、Connection
  • JDBCOutputFormat提供了一个JDBCOutputFormatBuilder,可以用来方便构建JDBCOutputFormat

Row

flink-core-1.7.0-sources.jar!/org/apache/flink/types/Row.java

/**
 * A Row can have arbitrary number of fields and contain a set of fields, which may all be
 * different types. The fields in Row can be null. Due to Row is not strongly typed, Flink's
 * type extraction mechanism can't extract correct field types. So that users should manually
 * tell Flink the type information via creating a {@link RowTypeInfo}.
 *
 * <p>
 * The fields in the Row can be accessed by position (zero-based) {@link #getField(int)}. And can
 * set fields by {@link #setField(int, Object)}.
 * <p>
 * Row is in principle serializable. However, it may contain non-serializable fields,
 * in which case serialization will fail.
 *
 */
@PublicEvolving
public class Row implements Serializable{

    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;

    /** The array to store actual values. */
    private final Object[] fields;

    /**
     * Create a new Row instance.
     * @param arity The number of fields in the Row
     */
    public Row(int arity) {
        this.fields = new Object[arity];
    }

    /**
     * Get the number of fields in the Row.
     * @return The number of fields in the Row.
     */
    public int getArity() {
        return fields.length;
    }

    /**
     * Gets the field at the specified position.
     * @param pos The position of the field, 0-based.
     * @return The field at the specified position.
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException Thrown, if the position is negative, or equal to, or larger than the number of fields.
     */
    public Object getField(int pos) {
        return fields[pos];
    }

    /**
     * Sets the field at the specified position.
     *
     * @param pos The position of the field, 0-based.
     * @param value The value to be assigned to the field at the specified position.
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException Thrown, if the position is negative, or equal to, or larger than the number of fields.
     */
    public void setField(int pos, Object value) {
        fields[pos] = value;
    }

    @Override
    public String toString() {
        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
        for (int i = 0; i < fields.length; i++) {
            if (i > 0) {
                sb.append(",");
            }
            sb.append(StringUtils.arrayAwareToString(fields[i]));
        }
        return sb.toString();
    }

    @Override
    public boolean equals(Object o) {
        if (this == o) {
            return true;
        }
        if (o == null || getClass() != o.getClass()) {
            return false;
        }

        Row row = (Row) o;

        return Arrays.deepEquals(fields, row.fields);
    }

    @Override
    public int hashCode() {
        return Arrays.deepHashCode(fields);
    }

    /**
     * Creates a new Row and assigns the given values to the Row's fields.
     * This is more convenient than using the constructor.
     *
     * <p>For example:
     *
     * <pre>
     *     Row.of("hello", true, 1L);}
     * </pre>
     * instead of
     * <pre>
     *     Row row = new Row(3);
     *     row.setField(0, "hello");
     *     row.setField(1, true);
     *     row.setField(2, 1L);
     * </pre>
     *
     */
    public static Row of(Object... values) {
        Row row = new Row(values.length);
        for (int i = 0; i < values.length; i++) {
            row.setField(i, values[i]);
        }
        return row;
    }

    /**
     * Creates a new Row which copied from another row.
     * This method does not perform a deep copy.
     *
     * @param row The row being copied.
     * @return The cloned new Row
     */
    public static Row copy(Row row) {
        final Row newRow = new Row(row.fields.length);
        System.arraycopy(row.fields, 0, newRow.fields, 0, row.fields.length);
        return newRow;
    }

    /**
     * Creates a new Row with projected fields from another row.
     * This method does not perform a deep copy.
     *
     * @param fields fields to be projected
     * @return the new projected Row
     */
    public static Row project(Row row, int[] fields) {
        final Row newRow = new Row(fields.length);
        for (int i = 0; i < fields.length; i++) {
            newRow.fields[i] = row.fields[fields[i]];
        }
        return newRow;
    }
}
  • Row是JDBCOutputFormat的writeRecord的类型,它里头使用Object数据来存取字段值,同时也提供了诸如of、copy、project等静态方法

JDBCOutputFormatBuilder

flink-jdbc_2.11-1.7.0-sources.jar!/org/apache/flink/api/java/io/jdbc/JDBCOutputFormat.java

    /**
     * Builder for a {@link JDBCOutputFormat}.
     */
    public static class JDBCOutputFormatBuilder {
        private final JDBCOutputFormat format;

        protected JDBCOutputFormatBuilder() {
            this.format = new JDBCOutputFormat();
        }

        public JDBCOutputFormatBuilder setUsername(String username) {
            format.username = username;
            return this;
        }

        public JDBCOutputFormatBuilder setPassword(String password) {
            format.password = password;
            return this;
        }

        public JDBCOutputFormatBuilder setDrivername(String drivername) {
            format.drivername = drivername;
            return this;
        }

        public JDBCOutputFormatBuilder setDBUrl(String dbURL) {
            format.dbURL = dbURL;
            return this;
        }

        public JDBCOutputFormatBuilder setQuery(String query) {
            format.query = query;
            return this;
        }

        public JDBCOutputFormatBuilder setBatchInterval(int batchInterval) {
            format.batchInterval = batchInterval;
            return this;
        }

        public JDBCOutputFormatBuilder setSqlTypes(int[] typesArray) {
            format.typesArray = typesArray;
            return this;
        }

        /**
         * Finalizes the configuration and checks validity.
         *
         * @return Configured JDBCOutputFormat
         */
        public JDBCOutputFormat finish() {
            if (format.username == null) {
                LOG.info("Username was not supplied.");
            }
            if (format.password == null) {
                LOG.info("Password was not supplied.");
            }
            if (format.dbURL == null) {
                throw new IllegalArgumentException("No database URL supplied.");
            }
            if (format.query == null) {
                throw new IllegalArgumentException("No query supplied.");
            }
            if (format.drivername == null) {
                throw new IllegalArgumentException("No driver supplied.");
            }

            return format;
        }
    }
  • JDBCOutputFormatBuilder提供了对username、password、dbURL、query、drivername、batchInterval、typesArray这几个属性的builder方法

JDBCAppendTableSink

flink-jdbc_2.11-1.7.0-sources.jar!/org/apache/flink/api/java/io/jdbc/JDBCAppendTableSink.java

/**
 * An at-least-once Table sink for JDBC.
 *
 * <p>The mechanisms of Flink guarantees delivering messages at-least-once to this sink (if
 * checkpointing is enabled). However, one common use case is to run idempotent queries
 * (e.g., <code>REPLACE</code> or <code>INSERT OVERWRITE</code>) to upsert into the database and
 * achieve exactly-once semantic.</p>
 */
public class JDBCAppendTableSink implements AppendStreamTableSink<Row>, BatchTableSink<Row> {

    private final JDBCOutputFormat outputFormat;

    private String[] fieldNames;
    private TypeInformation[] fieldTypes;

    JDBCAppendTableSink(JDBCOutputFormat outputFormat) {
        this.outputFormat = outputFormat;
    }

    public static JDBCAppendTableSinkBuilder builder() {
        return new JDBCAppendTableSinkBuilder();
    }

    @Override
    public void emitDataStream(DataStream<Row> dataStream) {
        dataStream
                .addSink(new JDBCSinkFunction(outputFormat))
                .name(TableConnectorUtil.generateRuntimeName(this.getClass(), fieldNames));
    }

    @Override
    public void emitDataSet(DataSet<Row> dataSet) {
        dataSet.output(outputFormat);
    }

    @Override
    public TypeInformation<Row> getOutputType() {
        return new RowTypeInfo(fieldTypes, fieldNames);
    }

    @Override
    public String[] getFieldNames() {
        return fieldNames;
    }

    @Override
    public TypeInformation<?>[] getFieldTypes() {
        return fieldTypes;
    }

    @Override
    public TableSink<Row> configure(String[] fieldNames, TypeInformation<?>[] fieldTypes) {
        int[] types = outputFormat.getTypesArray();

        String sinkSchema =
            String.join(", ", IntStream.of(types).mapToObj(JDBCTypeUtil::getTypeName).collect(Collectors.toList()));
        String tableSchema =
            String.join(", ", Stream.of(fieldTypes).map(JDBCTypeUtil::getTypeName).collect(Collectors.toList()));
        String msg = String.format("Schema of output table is incompatible with JDBCAppendTableSink schema. " +
            "Table schema: [%s], sink schema: [%s]", tableSchema, sinkSchema);

        Preconditions.checkArgument(fieldTypes.length == types.length, msg);
        for (int i = 0; i < types.length; ++i) {
            Preconditions.checkArgument(
                JDBCTypeUtil.typeInformationToSqlType(fieldTypes[i]) == types[i],
                msg);
        }

        JDBCAppendTableSink copy;
        try {
            copy = new JDBCAppendTableSink(InstantiationUtil.clone(outputFormat));
        } catch (IOException | ClassNotFoundException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException(e);
        }

        copy.fieldNames = fieldNames;
        copy.fieldTypes = fieldTypes;
        return copy;
    }

    @VisibleForTesting
    JDBCOutputFormat getOutputFormat() {
        return outputFormat;
    }
}
  • JDBCAppendTableSink里头用到了JDBCOutputFormat,它实现了AppendStreamTableSink以及BatchTableSink接口
  • 它的emitDataStream方法会给传入的dataStream设置JDBCSinkFunction的sink(JDBCSinkFunction);而emitDataSet方法则对dataSet设置output
  • 这里实现了TableSink(BatchTableSink声明实现TableSink)的getOutputType、getFieldNames、getFieldTypes、configure方法;configure方法这里主要是根据JDBCOutputFormat创建了JDBCAppendTableSink

JDBCSinkFunction

flink-jdbc_2.11-1.7.0-sources.jar!/org/apache/flink/api/java/io/jdbc/JDBCSinkFunction.java

class JDBCSinkFunction extends RichSinkFunction<Row> implements CheckpointedFunction {
    final JDBCOutputFormat outputFormat;

    JDBCSinkFunction(JDBCOutputFormat outputFormat) {
        this.outputFormat = outputFormat;
    }

    @Override
    public void invoke(Row value) throws Exception {
        outputFormat.writeRecord(value);
    }

    @Override
    public void snapshotState(FunctionSnapshotContext context) throws Exception {
        outputFormat.flush();
    }

    @Override
    public void initializeState(FunctionInitializationContext context) throws Exception {
    }

    @Override
    public void open(Configuration parameters) throws Exception {
        super.open(parameters);
        RuntimeContext ctx = getRuntimeContext();
        outputFormat.setRuntimeContext(ctx);
        outputFormat.open(ctx.getIndexOfThisSubtask(), ctx.getNumberOfParallelSubtasks());
    }

    @Override
    public void close() throws Exception {
        outputFormat.close();
        super.close();
    }
}
  • JDBCSinkFunction继承了RichSinkFunction,同时也实现了CheckpointedFunction接口;invoke方法使用的是JDBCOutputFormat.writeRecord方法,而snapshotState则是调用了JDBCOutputFormat.flush来及时提交记录

小结

  • JDBCOutputFormat继承了RichOutputFormat,open的时候调用了establishConnection来加载驱动,初始化dbConn,然后调用dbConn.prepareStatement(query)来获取upload(PreparedStatement);writeRecord采取的是PreparedStatement.addBatch操作,当batchCount大于等于batchInterval(默认5000),会执行flush操作,也就是调用PreparedStatement.executeBatch方法,然后重置batchCount;为了以防数据没达到batchInterval而未能提交,在close的时候会再次执行flush操作,然后才关闭PreparedStatement、Connection
  • Row是JDBCOutputFormat的writeRecord的类型,它里头使用Object数据来存取字段值
  • JDBCOutputFormatBuilder提供了对username、password、dbURL、query、drivername、batchInterval、typesArray这几个属性的builder方法
  • JDBCAppendTableSink里头用到了JDBCOutputFormat,它的emitDataStream方法会给传入的dataStream设置JDBCSinkFunction的sink(JDBCSinkFunction);而emitDataSet方法则对dataSet设置output
  • JDBCSinkFunction继承了RichSinkFunction,同时也实现了CheckpointedFunction接口;invoke方法使用的是JDBCOutputFormat.writeRecord方法,而snapshotState则是调用了JDBCOutputFormat.flush来及时提交记录

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