小学英语语法(代词和形容词)

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English

代词

1、人称代词

表示“我、你、他、她、它、我们、你们、他们”的词。

---我们你们他们
主格Iyouhesheitweyouthey
宾格meyouhimheritusyouthem
  1. 主格一般用在句子开头做主语,通常用在动词前。

      I am a student.
      They are cleaning the classroom.
  2. 宾格可以用来表示动作行为的对象,一般用在动词和介词后面。

      Ask her, please.
      Listen to me carefully.

2、物主代词

表示所有关系的代词。

---我的你的他的她的它的我们的你们的他们的
形容词性myyourhisheritsouryourtheir
名词性mineyourshishersitsoursyourstheirs
  1. 形容词性物主代词后面一般要带上名词。

      my watch, his cousin, our school
  2. 名词性物主代词本身就可以看做是名词,故其后不能再加名词,可单独使用。

     -- Is that your bike?
     -- No, Mine is blue.

3、不定代词

没有明确指定代替某个(些)人或物的词叫不定代词。

  1. someany都表示“一些”,既可以修饰可数名词,也可以修饰不可数名词。

    1. some多用在肯定句中,any多用在否定句和疑问句中。

       There are some flowers in the garden.  (肯定句)
       There isn't any milk in the frideg. (否定句)
       Do you have any hobbies?  (疑问句)
    2. 在表示邀请和希望对方给予肯定回答的疑问句中也要用some

       -- Would you like some coffee?
       -- Yes, please.  (邀请)
      
       -- Mum, can I have some peaches?
       -- Sure.  (希望对方给予肯定回答)
  2. bothall

    1. both表示“两个都……”,只指代或修饰可数名词。

       We are both policemen.  (强调两人)
    2. all表示“三个或三个以上都……”,既可指代或修饰可数名词,也可指代或修饰不可数名词。

       They are all in the room.  (至少三人)
  3. manymuch都表示“许多”,many修饰可数名词,much修饰不可数名词。

     My uncle has many stamps. There is much tea in the cup.
  4. eacheveryeach强调个人,指两个或两个以上的人或事物中的“每个”,every是指许多人或事物的“全体”,与all的意思相近。

     I'll buy a present for each of her parents.
     (我要为她的父母每人买一件礼物。)
  5. other作形容词时意思是“其他的”,指尚未提到的部门,其后一般接复数名词。

    We study Chinese, English, Maths and other subjects.
  6. somethingeverything

    1. something表示某事、某物。

       I want something to drink.
    2. everything表示一切事物、每样事物。

       Tell me everything about you.
  7. nobody没有人

    She likes nobody and nobody likes her.

4、指示代词

  1. this(这个)、these(这些)表示在时间上或空间上较近的人或物。
  2. that(那个)、those(那些)表示在时间上或空间上较远的人或物。

5、疑问代词

用来表达疑问或构成疑问句的代词,一般放在疑问句的句首。

疑问代词含义例句
what问什么--What's your name?
-- My name is Tom.
what colour问颜色--What colour is your coat?
--It's red.
what day问星期--What day is it today?
--It's Monday.
what date问日期--What date is it today?
--It's the first of June.
what shape问形状--What shape is the moon?
--It's round.
what ... job问工作--What's your father's job?
--He's a bus driver.
what time问时间--What time is it?
--It's ten o'clock.
when问时候--When is your birthday?
--It's on the first of May.
which问哪个--Which is your watch, this one or that one?
--That one.
where问地点--Where is my pen?
--It's on the floor.
who问谁--Who is the boy with big eyes?
--He's Liu Tao.
whose问谁的--Whose bag is this?
--It's Helen's.
why问原因--Why are you absent today?
--I'm ill
how问方式--How do you go to school?
--By bus.
how many问数量--How many books are there?
--There are five.
how much问价钱--How much is it?
--Twenty yuan.
how old问年龄--How old are you?
--I'm twevel
how far问距离--How far is it from here?
--It's about one kilometer.
how about问情况--I'm thirsty. How about you?
--Me, too.

形容词

形容词用来修饰名词或代词,表示人或事物的性质、状态和特征。它的位置通常放在被修饰的名词前。也可以放在be动词和lookfeeltastesoundget之后。
在英语中,形容词有三个等级,即原级、比较级和最高级。

  1. 表示两者“等同”时用原级,结构为:as + 原级 + as,表示“xx 和 xx 一样……”。

    Are you as tall as your twin sister?
  2. 表示两者“比较”时用比较级,结构为:比较级 + than,表示“xx 比 xxx 更……”。

    He's one year younger than me.
  3. 三个或三个以上的人或物进行比较,用形容词最高级。结构为:the + 形容词最高级 + in/of等表示范围的短语,表示“最……”。

    Autumn is the best season in New York.
    She is the tallest girl of our three.

形容词比较级的构成规则

  1. 一般在词尾加ertallerlonger
  2. 以字母e结尾,只加rlate --> later
  3. 辅音字母 + y结尾,变yi,再加erheavy --> heavier
  4. 双写末尾的辅音字母,再加erfat --> fatter
  5. 双音节和多音节词的比较级,在原级前加moremore beautifulmore careful
  6. 不规则变化:good --> bettermany/much --> morefat --> fartherbad/ill --> worse
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