Python接口自动化之request请求封装

行者AI
本文首发于:行者AI

我们在做自动化测试的时候,大家都是希望自己写的代码越简洁越好,代码重复量越少越好。那么,我们可以考虑将request的请求类型(如:Get、Post、Delect请求)都封装起来。这样,我们在编写用例的时候就可以直接进行请求了。

1. 源码分析

我们先来看一下Get、Post、Delect等请求的源码,看一下它们都有什么特点。

(1)Get请求源码


    def get(self, url, **kwargs):
        r"""Sends a GET request. Returns :class:`Response` object.
        :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
        :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
        :rtype: requests.Response
         """
        
        kwargs.setdefault('allow_redirects', True)
        return self.request('GET', url, **kwargs) 

(2)Post请求源码


    def post(self, url, data=None, json=None, **kwargs):
        r"""Sends a POST request. Returns :class:`Response` object.
        :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
        :param data: (optional) Dictionary, list of tuples, bytes, or file-like
        object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
        :param json: (optional) json to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
        :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
        :rtype: requests.Response
        """
    
        return self.request('POST', url, data=data, json=json, **kwargs)  

(3)Delect请求源码


    def delete(self, url, **kwargs):
        r"""Sends a DELETE request. Returns :class:`Response` object.
        :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
        :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
        :rtype: requests.Response
        """
    
        return self.request('DELETE', url, **kwargs)

(4)分析结果

我们发现,不管是Get请求、还是Post请求或者是Delect请求,它们到最后返回的都是request函数。那么,我们再去看一看request函数的源码。


    def request(self, method, url,
            params=None, data=None, headers=None, cookies=None, files=None,
            auth=None, timeout=None, allow_redirects=True, proxies=None,
            hooks=None, stream=None, verify=None, cert=None, json=None):
        """Constructs a :class:`Request <Request>`, prepares it and sends it.
        Returns :class:`Response <Response>` object.
    
        :param method: method for the new :class:`Request` object.
        :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
        :param params: (optional) Dictionary or bytes to be sent in the query
            string for the :class:`Request`.
        :param data: (optional) Dictionary, list of tuples, bytes, or file-like
            object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
        :param json: (optional) json to send in the body of the
            :class:`Request`.
        :param headers: (optional) Dictionary of HTTP Headers to send with the
            :class:`Request`.
        :param cookies: (optional) Dict or CookieJar object to send with the
            :class:`Request`.
        :param files: (optional) Dictionary of ``'filename': file-like-objects``
            for multipart encoding upload.
        :param auth: (optional) Auth tuple or callable to enable
            Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth.
        :param timeout: (optional) How long to wait for the server to send
            data before giving up, as a float, or a :ref:`(connect timeout,
            read timeout) <timeouts>` tuple.
        :type timeout: float or tuple
        :param allow_redirects: (optional) Set to True by default.
        :type allow_redirects: bool
        :param proxies: (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol or protocol and
            hostname to the URL of the proxy.
        :param stream: (optional) whether to immediately download the response
            content. Defaults to ``False``.
        :param verify: (optional) Either a boolean, in which case it controls whether we verify
            the server's TLS certificate, or a string, in which case it must be a path
            to a CA bundle to use. Defaults to ``True``.
        :param cert: (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file (.pem).
            If Tuple, ('cert', 'key') pair.
        :rtype: requests.Response
        """
        # Create the Request.
        req = Request(
            method=method.upper(),
            url=url,
            headers=headers,
            files=files,
            data=data or {},
            json=json,
            params=params or {},
            auth=auth,
            cookies=cookies,
            hooks=hooks,
        )
        prep = self.prepare_request(req)
    
        proxies = proxies or {}
    
        settings = self.merge_environment_settings(
            prep.url, proxies, stream, verify, cert
        )
    
        # Send the request.
        send_kwargs = {
            'timeout': timeout,
            'allow_redirects': allow_redirects,
        }
        send_kwargs.update(settings)
        resp = self.send(prep, **send_kwargs)
    
        return resp    

从request源码可以看出,它先创建一个Request,然后将传过来的所有参数放在里面,再接着调用self.send(),并将Request传过去。这里我们将不在分析后面的send等方法的源码了,有兴趣的同学可以自行了解。

分析完源码之后发现,我们可以不需要单独在一个类中去定义Get、Post等其他方法,然后在单独调用request。其实,我们直接调用request即可。

2. requests请求封装

代码示例:


    import requests
    
    class RequestMain:
        def __init__(self):
            """
    
            session管理器
            requests.session(): 维持会话,跨请求的时候保存参数
            """
            # 实例化session
            self.session = requests.session()
    
        def request_main(self, method, url, params=None, data=None, json=None, headers=None, **kwargs):
            """
    
            :param method: 请求方式
            :param url: 请求地址
            :param params: 字典或bytes,作为参数增加到url中         
            :param data: data类型传参,字典、字节序列或文件对象,作为Request的内容
            :param json: json传参,作为Request的内容
            :param headers: 请求头,字典
            :param kwargs: 若还有其他的参数,使用可变参数字典形式进行传递
            :return:
            """
    
            # 对异常进行捕获
            try:
                """
                
                封装request请求,将请求方法、请求地址,请求参数、请求头等信息入参。
                注 :verify: True/False,默认为True,认证SSL证书开关;cert: 本地SSL证书。如果不需要ssl认证,可将这两个入参去掉
                """
                re_data = self.session.request(method, url, params=params, data=data, json=json, headers=headers, cert=(client_crt, client_key), verify=False, **kwargs)
            # 异常处理 报错显示具体信息
            except Exception as e:
                # 打印异常
                print("请求失败:{0}".format(e))
            # 返回响应结果
            return re_data


    if __name__ == '__main__':
        # 请求地址
        url = '请求地址'
        # 请求参数
        payload = {"请求参数"}
        # 请求头
        header = {"headers"}
        # 实例化 RequestMain()
        re = RequestMain()
        # 调用request_main,并将参数传过去
        request_data = re.request_main("请求方式", url, json=payload, headers=header)
        # 打印响应结果
        print(request_data.text)  

:如果你调的接口不需要SSL认证,可将certverify两个参数去掉。

3. 总结

本文只是简单的介绍了Python接口自动化之request请求封装,后期还有许多优化的地方,希望和大家一起来探讨。

阅读 1.1k

行者AI(成都潜在人工智能科技有限公司)专注于人工智能在游戏领域的研究和应用,凭借自研算法,推出游...

7 声望
2 粉丝
0 条评论
你知道吗?

行者AI(成都潜在人工智能科技有限公司)专注于人工智能在游戏领域的研究和应用,凭借自研算法,推出游...

7 声望
2 粉丝
文章目录
宣传栏